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Lecture 4

HIST 203 Lecture 4: 1-12-2017 National Development Policies

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McGill University
HIST 203
John Zucchi

National Development-1/12/2017 Bringing in New Provinces Newfoundland -Doing well trading with Brazil, the West Indies, etc -Also relatively well off and stable economically -So there is a lot of opposition to Confederation, seen in popular culture of the time Prince Edward Island -Rejected Confederation at first -Entered Confederation in 1873 for practical reasons -Hampered by a recession in 1872 and a heavy debt load built up before -Railways drained the colony dry -Also had been hurt by the end of the Reciprocity Agreement in 1866 -Farmers were unable to sell goods, hurting the economy badly -JC Pope convinced Islanders -Proposed government funding for Roman Catholic schools and got Catholic support -Stressed that the only alternative was total economic failure -Got their debt load assumed by the federal government and a substantial land grant (annual) bought off land from absentee landowners -Owned land from afar and didn’t invest in it so Confederation helped encourage development West Coast -Vancouver Island and British Columbia were tied more to Britain than Canada -HBC were from Britain and most colonists were more connected to the Pacific and even US than Canada -Some Canadians lived out there -After Gold Rushes ended, the colonists were in decline economically -Were left with three basic choices -Annexation to Canada -Annexation to the US -Remain a suffering crown colony -Proponents of Canadian annexation existed in Western media -When the Lt Governor after 1869 was pro-Confederation, the process was made possible -Joined and got good terms with debt assumption and a nice subsidy along with responsible government and promises of railroad construction starting in 2 years and getting done in 10 -Feds raised money through tariffs Northwest/Prairies -Ontario’s development led to farmers wanting more land and looking West -Hudson’s Bay Company holdings had an 1869 expiry -The Clear Grits were most supportive of moving West -Had farmers on their side -Also company interests in the Grand Trunk Railroad who wanted it pushed West -Laurentian systemusing the St. Lawrence and other routes to expand trade with both Europe and Asia -St. Lawrence was the start of a growing East-West system -Surveys from Henry Hind and Simon Dawson and John Palliser found that the prairies were not an obstacle, but rather an opportunity for farming -By the 1860s the fertility of the region was common knowledge -30,000-60,000 Indians who were nomadic -10,000 Metis, who were intermediaries and religiously
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