HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Red River Colony, Pacific Scandal, Numbered Treaties

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7 Mar 2014
January 15th: Canada's Age of Empires?
Notion that Can gov'ts deny they are a colonising power
oGoes against idea of Can as a peaceful nation
Western expansion an inevitable right for Canada
o1868 - Rupert's Land negotiations in London
oBritish paid 300 000 pounds to the HBC but transfer to Canada delayed
oWhy this is happening Canada is building a road to the Red River Colony
Can party supported Red River Colony being a part of Canada
No one bothered to talk to those in the colony about their transfer
Red River Settlement
oScottish fur trade settlement
oBy 1860s pop. In mainly French Metis (5757) but 4083 English Metis 558 natives
and 1500 Euro settlers
oControversy started when Can surveyors went to survey the land and were
turned away by the metis (surveying is the groundwork to colonisation)
Formed a Metis party - Metis questioned whether Can had the
sovereignty to control the colony
Rise of Louis Riel
oInvolved in stopping the British appointed lieutenant governor from entering the
oFederal gov't seemed willingly to negotiate so three red river reps sent to Ottawa
to negotiate entry into confederation
oMembers of the Can party arrested the released - a group of metis caught up w/
them and the party members put back into prison
oUp to this point Riel operated quite well - kept all Metis together
oRiel allowed Scott to be tried in a Metis court and was sentenced to death -
found guilty if insubordination and striking the guards but was a known racist
His execution serves as a way to punish Riel
oScott was an Orangeman (massive numbers in Ontario) - used his death as a
way to diminish the importance of Riel and stir up opinion against Riel
oThis is the background for the delegates arriving in Ottawa
As a result most negotiations were private and accepted
Riel said he wanted amnesty for all those involved in Riots
It was agreed
Riel surprised when gov't sends army to Red River to arrest Riel -
he and his followers flee to US
Push west cont'd after Red River resistance
British Colombia (1871 joins Can)
oNatives far outnumber people of Euro background
oDebate over entry centered around how BC would be colonised - what kind of
province would it be
Would it be part of the commercial empire of Can or a colony of
independent farmers (yeoman farmer)
oTerms of entry:
Assumption of colonial debt
Rail link to central Can
6 MPs and 3 senators
Colonial subsidy
Agreement to set up a naval base in BC
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