HIST 203 Lecture Notes - Continuous Journey Regulation, John Diefenbaker, Avro Canada Cf-105 Arrow
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Canadians on the battlefield
•Italian Campaign July 1943
•Invasion of Sicily
•Moro River Campaign December 4-26th
•Battle of Ortona December 20-28th 1943
•The Hitler Line (May 1944)
•25 000 Casualties
In taking sicily, the mediterranean would become an allied body of water. They landed in July, but battles
would continue until August. In Nearby Italy, Mussolini would be toppled on the 25th of July. This did not
mean that Italy was won for the allies, the Germans took control of the Country. The allies began moving
up the Italian boot. The Germans continued to withdraw, setting mines and bombs, destroying what was
in place. The most difficult fighting would be in Ortona. At Ortona, people had assumed that the Germans
would continue to withdraw, however this was not the case. The battle in Ortona went house to house.
The Germans would finally withdraw in December 1943. 1372 Canadians would be killed.
The Battle for Rome began on the 11th of May 1944. This would be the first time that the Canadian core
would fight together. The americans were finally able to move. They would take Rome on the 4th of June.
From then on, Canadian involvement would be very limited from then on, being moved for D-Day
preparations in France. Allies continued to move up into northern Italy in the spring of 1944. Canadians
would assault the Gothic line, bringing around 2500 casualties. Movement north was slow, in the end the
entire Campaign cost Canadians 25000 casualties and Italy has often been seen as the less studied front
The Invasion of France was much more high profile. Operation Overlord (7016 ships) 107 000 troops. D-
day would begin early in the morning 1944 when parachutists and navy frogmen began landing on the
shore. Canada was officially part of the British forces. Numerous Canadians were part of the water
support for the landing. 110 canadian warships were involved in the invasion. Juno Beach was 1 of 5
assault beaches attacked by the allies. By night, they would 1074 soldiers dead, wounded or missing. The
troops had moved further inland than any other troops that day. In the following month, Canadians would
push against stiff opposition to Caen. The key to a large allied victory was to encircle German forces. The
Normandy Campaign would see 18 500 casualties. They were successful however. From Normandy the
Canadians moved up towards the great supply ports. They would be involved in the clearing of the
Back in Canada, there was increasing demand for conscription. King did not want another conscription
crisis as seen in the 1st world war. So King dismissed his defence minister. The hope was that many of the
soldiers who had been conscripted to work in Canada would volunteer to go over seas. Very few of them
did however. As a result the crisis within the army got worse. Finally he decided conscription was
necessary and he ordered that 16 000 conscripts be sent over seas. As a result there were riots in Quebec
City and Montreal. Just over 4000 would see battle and 79 would be killed.
In Germany, Canadians would be involved in the final battle against Germany. By march 10th, Canadians
had lost 2300 troops. In March they had reached the Rhine and were moving north towards the
Netherlands. Canada would have the fourth largest airforce and was very high on the list in the most
powerful armies in the world. The war would cost over 28 billion $.
What would this new post war world bring for Canada.
The last world war was followed by unemployment, divide by language, massive strikes, King had been
there after world war 1 and wanted to avoid this situation at all costs. Soldiers returning from war would
not stand in line for unemployment.
The establishment of Canada's welfare state
•It is the beginnings of the social safety net (Medicare, unemployment insurance, financing the
lives of the citizens.
•MacKenzie King had tried to find the way out of the depression. He had hoped he would not have
to put in any new kind of deals. The problems was that there were an increasing number
•when economic cycles are in decline, governments should spend more to get the economy going
•Much to King's chagrin, he was frustrated that the national employment commission suggested
that Ottawa take on the task of unemployment insurance. More was necessary to convince the
government to think of insurance as a national problem and not a regional or provincial.
•What would happen when demobilization would take place?
◦Unemployment would be a good way to support soldiers coming back to Canada.
◦Problem with this is that social issues were or provincial jurisdiction. The most difficult leader
of course was Maurice Duplessis. On the 12th of July 1940, the BNA was altered to give the
Canadian government jurisdiction over unemployment insurance. Employers and employees
would contribute as would the federal government. It would only deal with a 1/4 of people
who were working. People would not get their whole wage, only 1/2. when this program was
put in place, it also created a new bunch of bureaucrats and civil jobs. 1600 federal offices
were opened in cities and towns across the country. From now on the federal government
◦A 2nd King commission also played a key role in establishing the welfare state.
▪It suggested that the federal government should transfer the responsibility of the relief
employable/unemployed to the provincial government. Transfer payments would then be
given to provinces as compensation.
Rise of the Left
Pushed MacKenzie King to adopt welfare state measures
in 1943, the CCF leading in the polls in Canada and it actually became the official opposition in the
province of Ontario, shortly after, Tommy Douglas was elected as the premier of Saskatchewan. He
would begin pushing all sorts of welfare measures. MacKenzie King began to pass a series of measures
which would establish a social welfare net and the decommissioning of troops. Family allowances Act
(baby bonus 1945) a 2nd crucial move was the passing of the veteran's charter (1942-1946 land and loans)
provided them with free education and free training for when they were decommissioned. This would
provide a much smoother transition for when the soldiers would be decommissioned.
The national housing act allowed Canadians to purchase their own homes by granting them loans. They
would back loans for Canadians looking to purchase homes. Over 1 million new homes were built
between 1945-1960. PC 1003, the Rand Formula (1946) gave workers the right to be represented by a
union. The Rand formula would normalize many elements of PC 1003 after the war. It would legalize
unions and allow for easier financing of unions in the post war era. It allowed for a checkoff system that
would put it in the hands of company payrolls (it was automatically done) Old Age security 1951
The principle of the baby bonus was to make sure each child gets a fair start to life. As a result of the
veterans charter, over 150 000 veterans enrolled in University.
Strikes were no longer as violent as they were before, strikes occurred legally, resulting in less explosive
events where strikes went to the general population.
After the war, government pushed many women out of the workplace. They believed that the woman's
place was in the home, especially married women. Single women or widows were not treated the same as
The liberals sudden shift to the left shaved off the push from the CCF, but after the war the liberals liking
of social welfare faded due to the fall of the CCF.
The federal government would do little to expand the welfare state. In 1947, Tommy douglas' plan for
free health care resulted in the entire province getting unlimited health care for 5 dollars a year.
This led to a demand for a national healthcare program.
•Saskatchewan CCF government introduced 5$ per year universal health care 1947
•Hospital insurance and diagnostic services Act 1957
•This new kind of expansion, was a kind of nation building and gave new meaning to what the
•After the war, we see this expansion as nation building
•In 1949 NewFoundland would become Canada's 10th province.
•Joey Smallwood (1900-1991) premier of Newfoundland from 1949-1972
•Government by commission?
Government had broken down in Newfoundland and British Commission had ruled.
A first referendum was held with three options, without a concise decision, they dropped one of the 3 and
a 53% majority voted for confederation.
Cold war and the Canadian way of life
•The post war world to the 1960's held a significant degree of consensus amongst Canadians.
There was consensus about the place of women in society, where women would be home makers.
Most political parties believed in the expansion of the welfare state. Providing a welfare net for
Canadians with the explicit goal being that the less economically fortunate should be given some
advantages by the state to improve their situation, to try and have less poverty. Something which
would become more and more important in the 50's and 60's. There was also an agreement that
Canada would be a cold war ally to the united states. This would develop strong cultural links,
sharing new commitments to internationalism, to economically restructure the global economy
and that this stability would be part of the new international order. As this commitment solidified,
there was this perceived threat by the Soviet Union.
•In 1945, Igor Gouzenzo defected, allegations were kept quite until february 1946. 39 people were
arrested and 18 were convicted. Fred Rose (labour progressive M.P. Was convicted of spying)
War Measures act.
•Some of the people arrested and convicted were McGill Teachers who had shared information
with the soviet union.
•During WWII communist party was illegal, so they went under the name of the Progressive party
•All these spy scandals and this soviet deceit provided the context for Canada's entry into the Cold
war in a very close relationship with the United States.