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HIST 203 (51)

History of Canada since 1867 (lecture 1).odt

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HIST 203
Jarrett Rudy

Why does Canada exist and what does it mean? Act of providence? – God decided it was a good thing. God created it. Alogic of nature? – It was natural that British colonies would have affinities, that there would be an east/west alliance. (canada instead has tried to establish a north/south alliance with the USA) Apeaceable Kingdom? – It was a peaceful and easy transition (though most processes in early Canada were done through military and concessions Canada is inevitable and good? – that it was inevitable that Canada come together and on the question of being good, that is up for debate. Why did a political entity called Canada come into being in the northern part of north american in the mid nineteenth century? – Diverse groups of peoples (Europeans and natives) – Diverse political structures Population of British NorthAmerica according to 1861 census BC 51, 524 Rupert's land 6, 691 Canada West 139, 6091 Canada East 1 111 566 New Brunswick 252, 047 Nova Scotia 330, 857 PEI 80, 857 Population of British colonies 1861 1 million Francophones Irish 25% English and Welsh 20% Scottish 16% Germans were the largest non english / non french speakers 130 000 – 400 000 native peoples spread out (most in bc and rupert's land) 10, 000 Metis 10, 000 inuit 1841 – Upper (Ontario/English Speaking) and Lower (Quebec/French Speaking) Canada merge 1849 – responsible government British government supported self government and allowed to bring the government closer to the people being governed. Liberalism order framework: Canada as Liberal order – British liberalism from 1840's – liberalism changes over time and in different places – Self-government pf colonies – Small government, free trade – Liberalism as a kind of secular religion with the individual as its central subject – Individual an ideal rather than a human being – Hierarchy of rights and freedoms -conflicts over which rights are most important *British like Liberalism because it was cheaper Liberal government downloads defence – tension with US – US civil war (1861-1865) – US-British tensions – The trent affair (Nov 1861, americans search a British ship traveling from cuba to england) – TheAlabama, The Florida and the Shenandoah – Fenian attacks (New Brunswick -Dec. 1865) -Group of Irish militants looking to attack the british empire and push for the independence of Ireland What about confederation? Deadlock of previous governing system – Union of the Canadas (1841) – Responsible Government (1849) – The executive is responsible to the legislative branch of government which is elected – Reformers wanted “rep by pop” (west was upset with number of seats held by east) Political cast of late 1850's and 1860's – Reformers: liberals, pro-free trade, small government – Clear Grits most radical -anti-monarchy, anti-catholic – Libe
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