Canada'sAge of Empire
– The agreement which came out in the British NorthAmerica act was much more centralized then
they had hoped.
– Although it did have a strong central focus, Canada remained decentralized in allowing its
provinces to control certain aspects of society such as education.
– Confederation was not entirely successful in its goals, only merging three colonies in 1867, others
waited for a better deal.
– Canada looked to gain territory across the country
– How did Canada gain territory in the west?
– 1868 – Rupert's land negotiations in London
– British paid the Hudson Bay Company 300, 000 pounds
– Transfer to Canada delayed
As negotiations were ongoing, Canada began building a road towards the Red River colony (Manitoba)
– Nobody discussed the settlement with the people living in the Red River colony who had been
there since 1812.
– By the 1860's its population was divided by French speaking Metis, 5757, English speaking
Metis, 4083, 558 natives and 1500 European settlers
As Canadian surveyors began surveying the land, Metis representatives stopped a party of Canadian
surveyors with arms. (October 1969)
– Rise of Riel (born around Winnipeg)
– New Lieutenant Governor William McDougall stopped and a provisional government was set up.
(setting their terms for entry into Canada)
– Three Metis delegates were sent to Ottawa to discuss the Colony's entry
– Terms for the entrance of the Red River colony had been put to the Canadian federal negotiators.
It was at this point that Riel athowed Scott to be tried in a Metis court where he was sentenced to
death. He was executed on the 4 of March.
– This is the reason Canada refused to deal with Riel (Claimed that Riel was a murderer and that
Scott was an angelic british citizen)
– Delegation of Metis had been told by Riel that nothing should be signed unless there was an
amnesty for the people involved in Scott's death.
– 1875, General Worseley of British army arrives in Manitoba to arrest Riel who had fled to the
– This would be the end of the Red River resistance.
Push west continued after the Red River resistance, with British Columbia's entry much less rocky than
the Red River Colony. BC had many more conditions to be met however
– Their debt had to be taken over by the federal government
– a responsible government would be set up in BC
– demanded a Naval base
– annual subsidies had to be given from the federal Government
– 25000-300000 natives in interior (1870)
– another 10, 000 Metis
– less than 2000 europeans
– Never were the Natives considered
– Railway had to be set up between central and Western Canada
– Problems would arise when Natives claimed ownership to lands being taken over by the Railway expansion
– Natives rights had to be extinguished before land could be redistributed
– Railway would make European colonization of the west easier
– McDonald began a process of western treaty signings to avoid another Red River crisis
– In exchange for signing the Treaties, Natives would receive 3$ and 15$ per family of 5 per
year. Some oral agreements were made as well (clothing, livestock)
– we see an exchange for property rights where natives were moved to the harshest and
ugliest lands in the west
– Aboriginal peoples were caught in a situation which would change their culture forever
– over hunting of Buffalo (1879, most of the Buffalo were gone)
– mass use of guns
– Elders saw what was happening and asked that the government support them so that their people