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HIST 205
John Serrati

Lecture 1 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM Professor John Serrati ([email protected]) Availabilities Leacock 817 Monday 8:30-1:30 Wednesday 10:30-11:30 Textbooks Dillon and Garland (Ancient Rome; Ancient Greece)  bought Boatwright and Gargola Pomeroy (A Brief History of Ancient Greece)  bought Grade Scheme Conference 20% Essay 1 20% Essay 2 30% Final Exam 30% Lecture 2 (Homer and the Dark Age) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM Intro  Religion greatly impacted the Ancient Mediterranean  Laid the foundation for modern society  Our values, calendar, time go back to Greece and Rome  Rome culture derived from Greece  Greeks thinkers and Rome the builders  Two different views, much like Americans (brutes) and Europeans (effeminate)  Cicero, one Roman is worth 10 Greeks  Mediterranean is one world (unification of Greek culture and language, then military and political unification of Rome) o All would come to learn Greek (in philosophy, prose, drama, native histories)  Unified by fashion, sports (pentathlon), pass times, religion  Differences in both Rome and Greece, but overall unification Introduction to Homer  Composed 800-675; recorded 535 BC  Homer sets the tone for pan Mediterranean culture and society  Homer reflects a change in the values of society and larger kingdoms (becomes classical Greek society)  Binding element for the Greeks o Everyone in Ancient Greece has heard of Homer  Greeks are not politically unified for the classical period(Rome will later force unification)  Gives them a sense of values, history and importance  John Lendon (Soldiers and Ghosts) modern society always facing forward (because of technology), Greeks sit backwards (everything he is thinking about has happened before, now they try to live up to what they have been)  th Dark Age (11 century BC onwards)  Human condition devolves  Society leaves little traces (no records)  Emerge from Dark Ages in the 700s  Homer begins writing in the 700s  Emerges with the new society  Homer is the earliest example of Western literature  Homer is a comfort topic  Sets the tone for men and women (interpersonal relations) Section 1: Dark Age  There are earlier societies (second millennium BC) before the dark ages (Mycenae, Minoans)  Marked decline among this society  No one knows what caused the decline (many theories i.e. wars, natural disasters, violent migration, combo of all) th  Trojan war in the 12 century BC, but no certainty o Accounts from other cultures nearby o Greeks fleeing in great numbers  Destructions and abandonment of major urban centers  Survival of a few villages, or settlements on hills(one of which is Athens)  Agriculture is main source of subsistence  Very few archeological finds  Religion practiced on a local scale  Society is ruled by Basiceus (warlord)  Cities have more than one bacileus  Homer’s idea of how people rule th  8 Century Greeks begin to recover with the help of the Phoenicians (merchant/trading people) o Better goods and technology are present o Traders bring writing back to Greece (indirectly) o Greek alphabet o Semitic that appears in Palestine (East to West, through Asia minor)  Early colonizing movement to Anatolia (Asia minor/Mordern day Turkey)  Hellas what Greece was known for (encompasses all of Greece)  Greeks talk to each other again  Resumption of trade and communication between cities  Greeks start coming together in larger gatherings (panhellenic, derived from hellas)  Olympics is the first panhellenic event (in 776 BC) o Athletic and religious festival o Compete with each other (cardinal aspects of ancient Greek society) o Individual competition is critical (come directly out of the Iliad)  Greeks are now living in city states (polis)  Live in individual self governed states (over 1000)  Symbol of the economical and cultural recovery of Greece  Delphi = shrine of prophecy (shrine of Apollo, belongs to no one) o Panhellenic shrine  Section 2: Homer  Epic poems  Epic = story, long narrative, always a great adventure, characters are legendary heroes and always set in the past  Orginal poems are much older than the Illiade and the Odyssey o Both were originally sung before they were written down o Went through many changes o Incorporate stock themes (love, revenge, wronged hero, etc) o Writing them down symbolizes fundamental shift)  No one knows what he looks like  Homer is often portrayed as blind  Ancient statues often don’t have eyes (because they were painted on afterwards)  Blindness helps the poet because he must access other parts of the imagination (most poets are depicted as blind)  Themes of epic are older than time and epic itself (deep dark reaches of human culture, way before writing)  Are they factual ?  Different versions because they are part of oral poetry  Written down CA 535 BC (the version today was the one written down in Athens by many bards)  Writing it down changes the reception (other versions get squeezed out)  freezes it in time  Homeros : he who strings together o Might make us doubt Homer’s existence o Did not write down the Iliad and the Odyssey o Possible that he was a very popular bard around 800 BC o Poems came from Asia minor o Poems contradict themselves at several points (several characters have many death scenes)  These poems are part of the epic cycle (13 poems, that go back to the creation of the universe and have several stories of the journey home)  8 are attributed to Homer, 5 are other authors r anonymous  Various hymns attributed to Homer  Govern interpersonal relationships  Would not be considered historia Section 3: Impact on Society th  Hesiod (8 century BC) – Theogany (the beginning of the universe) o Not part of the epic cycle (there was a predecessor) o The Iliad, The Odyssey and Theogany outline religious beliefs o They are not sacred texts  God’s are portrayed in these works  The Greeks did not have any sacred religious books  Can’t write a new version of a sacred text  Religion is a fundamental part of Greek lie (why it is portrayed in these stories)  Pervasive nature of religion (part of every day life, engage in religious activities all the time)  Politics was considered sacred (buying and selling, war, meeting places, agriculture are also considered religious)  The Iliad alters literature, gives characters a dramatic need (fundamental in entertainment)  Dramatic need is expressed in time (respect, honour) o leads to geras the physical prize which you obtain  outline cultural and social background  shame culture (it’s only bad if you get caught) o right or wrong depends on the public perception of your acts o shame culture is about power and respect for those who are considered superior to you o If you have an opportunity to do something and chose not to, you will be shamed  Perception that all men should pursue time (individual level)  Outline perception of who women were (supposed to be)   Paris and Helen o Women are temptresses  Ruled by lust  Get men to forget about their time o Helen uses her beauty to get Paris to behave like a child and take her back to Troy o Distracting him from time o Men’s perception of the women is that of a temptresses o Penelope  the model for all Greek women (she is virtuous and faithful to her husband)  Can’t have idle hands (so she is not led astray)  Even she uses cunning and guile (situation with suitors) o Upper-class women can’t leave the household without a man  Without the Dark Age  The polis would not have developed Lecture 3 (Archaic Greece and the Rise of Polis) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM INTRODUCTION Archaic Age  The present is better than the past, but it is still not terrible  776BC – The first Olympics o Moving out of the Dark Age  Beginning to understand that they are part of hellas (not politically)  Greeks are in more contact with each other o Result: more trade  Nonetheless, they are dividing themselves with the rise of the polis o Polis’ insure political independence (city-state) o Clearly mark and fix borders  With population increase there is land hunger  There are too many people for the land available  Leads to warfare  Then emigration  Development of writing o Greeks give a lot of importance to the art of writing (literature)  First culture to do so  Polis and competitive culture usher Greece into the next era, the Classical Age Polis-culture  Compared to rudimentary capitalism  Both are based on competition  They all want monopoly (each polis wants to eliminate the other poleis)  War used as a tool to obtain complete control o Will inevitably lead to Greece’s downfall Section 1: Archaic Age  Early 700BC, more rainfall and more cold weather o Facilitates the development of agriculture o Greeks also find new agricultural techniques  600BC – Agricultural output doubles o People had more food o More income o Less malnutrition o Lower infant mortality rate o Population increase  Population increase = land shortage  Greek tradition o Pass down land – divide land for all sons  One exception : Sparta All poleis are squeezed together  i.e. 7 city states in 40km radius  Because everyone is so close, poleis fix there borders to protect their land o Build temples to fix borders  Disputes continue – leads to warfare  Hegemony: the leadership of the area o All poleis wish to obtain this o All are violent  Warfare becomes the main business of the polis o If you can afford armor, it is your duty to defend the polis o Even poor men are prompted to participate  Leads to tension  The reason aristocracy is in power is because they defend the polis o Power diminishes once the community becomes involved in warfare o Basileis have less power than in the Dark Age  Leads to tyranny Section 2: Polis  Most developed over time  Some believe it was to develop a mutual protection or because one village took over other villages  Oikois= household or community  Aristotle described this as a natural thing (the highest form of evolution) o All without poleis are inferior or superior  Superior if you are a God and do not need the polis  On average there were 30 000-40 000 people o Could be smaller o Rarely went over  Athens had over 300 000 people  A metropolis for the Greek world  Over a thousand poleis  Population count based on the city and surrounding area (urban and rural territories) o Surrounding area is called the chora  Once the polis attains a certain size, loses self sufficiency Section 3: Writing  Was thought to be brought by the Phoenicians  On the coast of Asian minor, there are remnants of two languages and writing  Phoenicians: o you had to be literate to use o vowels are implied (why they must include themselves) o Writing is not used for much  The Greeks invent vowels – no longer implied sounds o Writing is not only a means of recording, it is a form of communications o Greeks take the writing to communicate literature (i.e. Homer, the first thing they write down)  Great importance placed on the written word  They write right to left, then on the next line, right to left and so on  Boustrophedon a team of oxen that go back and forth  Right to left establishes itself soon after  Changes the way Greeks perceive themselves, binds the culture and the Greeks together   Chora: are equally citizens of the polis (except Sparta) o Often seen as more important because they product most agricultural product  Development of city-state o No siege technology until 300BC o Walls are important for protection  Adjectives used for names (identify as Athenians…) – view the polis as a collective enterprise  The city name is not used as often  Ceremonies are specific to the location (within the urban center or in the chora)  All have an agora (open space in the center of the polis) o Meeting space for political events, festivals o Used as a market (not main function) o Seen as a space that belongs to all (for the public) o Wide open space  Bouleterion: council chamber (where they meet) o Many political systems are oligarchy (ruled by few) o Space for the ruling elite  There is an urban and rural population  Aristocracy that own a lot of land are part of the ruling council  Lecture 4 (Rise of the polis) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM HIST 413 – Field Course Section 1: Polis  Chora: are equally citizens of the polis (except Sparta) o Often seen as more important because they product most agricultural product  Development of city-state o No siege technology until 300BC o Walls are important for protection  Adjectives used for names (identify as Athenians…) – view the polis as a collective enterprise  The city name is not used as often  Ceremonies are specific to the location (within the urban center or in the chora)  All have an agora (open space in the center of the polis) o Meeting space for political events, festivals o Used as a market (not main function) o Seen as a space that belongs to all (for the public) o Wide open space  Bouleterion: council chamber (where they meet) o Many political systems are oligarchy (ruled by few) o Space for the ruling elite  There is an urban and rural population  Aristocracy that own a lot of land are part of the ruling council  People of middle wealth are making there money off of shipping, improved farming techniques, trading (buying and selling goods) o Starting to play a greater role in the polis o Rising tension, desire for upward social mobility  Non land owners are very common (more common than today) o >50% malnourished  Within the polis o Men organize themselves into social and religious groups called phratry o Could have origins from warrior dining groups  Stopped being warrior society, except Sparta and Crete o Membership in a phratry was hereditary o Dominated by one family o Phratries of the middle class are organized by trade o They dined together, but had specific religious and burial rights  Civic rights for all  Religious rights within a phratry o Phratries survived by the donations from members o Primary role: provide immediate religious and social group  Society is not democratic, society based on competition  Being part of an extended oligarchy o Stasis: group conflict  Phratries form the basis for this  Can become violent in the fight for more prestige  Urban phratries clash with rural phratries o Metoikoi: Greeks who migrate towards a polis or changed polis  Not like barbaros (foreigner)  Labourers (did not buy land and were not farmers)  Did not have the same rights as the citizens of the polis  Still considered citizens of the original polis Section 2: citizenship   Very guarded  Citizenship is passed on through a male figure  Citzenship and nationalism often associated o Whereas Romans can naturalize  Metoikoi could not become citizens  Athens becomes so guarded, both parents must be Athenian o Trying to limit the power  Hoplites class is considered prestigious, sign of citizenship  As a citizen you have the right to serve in the Hoplite army  You can join a phratry  In Athens you get the vote  Rights under the law are different o i.e. your testimony is worth more than that of the metoikoi Section 3: Women  Women were often seen as a distraction to getting time  Women were citizens  Rights and privileges varied  In Sparta they could own land (was very rare)  Could not participate in politics  Seen as important in fertility o Women are seen as an oven where the man’s sperm gestates o No prohibition in marrying uterian siblings (same mother, but not the same mother)  Not as many consequences in big cities  Role was in the household  In Athens, they needed to wear a veil  Always accompanied by a man  Male and female spheres – little to no interactions o Both dine on their own  Richer women are considered the heads of a specific household o Could lend money to others o Could manage a certain sum  Poorer women had to work, just like men to make money  Small farmers that were selling in the agora were female  Led difficult lives and often died in childbirth  Middle wealth families were a bit more strict o Smaller home o Fewer slaves o Fewer things to do Lecture 5 (Rise of the polis and tyranny) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM Section 1: Slavery  Are a prominent part of the polis  There are barely any laws for slaves  Slaves have no rights  Considered to be property  Can marry and have children if their master allows it o Greater chance of becoming free in Rome  Greece does not equal a slave economy o society that depends on slaves o Rome is wholly dependent on slaves  Slaves can be scribes, teachers, field workers, mining, sexual, domestic work  Could rent out a slave (might be given tips) o Purchasing your freedom is much more common  Main law: taboo to enslave a person from your polis o Debt bondage  Becomes frowned upon to enslave other Greeks (in some circles) o Enslaving from Greece is proven to have occured anyways  Polis = collective enterprise  Greatest benefit and responsibility: common defense (chora and walls are protection)  Section 2: State formation  Every citizen gave up a part of their freedom to be part of an encompassing structure o Have certain established rules o Have the right to be tried in a court of law o According to certain laws  Government was less in Ancient Greece identifiable (not anarchy)  The State is forming (700-500BC) o Loosely formed  No infrastructure  Leads to the rise of tyranny o Most go in armed and take over a polis o i.e. Miltiades (550-489) o Athenian government is minimal and can’t help those who are under the menace of Miltiades o Then he raids another town, State is newly formed, so he must give the land to Athens  In 20 years, Miltiades could go out with his private army, then the State establishes rules and reins him in  States are establishing a monopoly on the use of internal and external violence (only the State has the right to use violence)  Come back to law codes  Laws begin to govern government o No one can have a private army o One of the last ones to come in is the fact that murder is a private crime and people have the right to seek vengeance  Families, friends, phratries (especially)  Blood feuds o You can no longer exact your own vengeance o Go back to a semi divine figure (coming from Delphi, crossing over the realm of religion)  Aischylos: writer of a trilogy depicting state formation Section 3: Olympics and the Archaic Age  Ends late 400 BC or rise of Athenian democracy  Pursuit of time o Not reserved to aristocracy o Man’s right to pursue time is key element of citizenship  Arete: hereditary excellence o Believed to be found only in the aristocracy  Archaic Age starts to break down the feeling of arete  Before it was only practiced by aristocracy because they had the time o Eventually winning became more important than reserving it to the upper class  Technai: training, something that is taught o Olympics follow this more and more o Could not be a slave  A citizen can do anything when taught  Arete still continues  Some competitors become tyrants Section 4: Tyranny  Tyrant: single man ruler that has seized power with no right to power (considered neither legal nor illegal) o Not hereditary o Not pejorative  Could be seen positively  First tyranny is in 668BC  Over 2 generations o Every polis becomes a tyranny except for Sparta  By 500BC, they begin to fall o Rarely more than 2 tyrants  Used their position to focus economy  Furthered art and architecture  Furthered the idea that citizens could pursue time to the fullest of their abilities  Solved enough problems for the people to decide that they were no longer needed o In some cases, the idea of a tyrannos as a temporary idea  Problems start when the tyrant decides to institutionalize his position Lecture 6 (Tyranny) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM Section 1: Rise and fall of tyranny  Begins in Argos Pheidon (first recorded place) under Pheidon o He has seized power illegally  Tyranny is a product of the Archaic Age (creation of middle wealth class, wealth is more spread out, group conflict aka stasis) o Stasis exists in a polis when there are conflict between different groups of wealth or different value  Hoplite (individual) Phalanx (formation)  Never developed mountain form of fighting o Developed a system to protect the chora (farmlands) instead o First thing people seize are the farmland (production of resources)  It is thought that the formation grew from the natural instinct to group together when under threat o It comes to be a small group organize in rows and columns o All had hoplon (shield, protects on left half of body – right side by the other person’s hoplon), body armor and a spear  Requires a lot of coordination with others  Sword was a last resort weapon  Push with the shield and then try and stab with the spear  Phalanx worked on cohesion  There are also gymnets (the poorer who can’t afford armor) who rush forward when the phalanx is broken o Would also strip the defeated of their armor  Individualism is frowned upon in the phalanx  Phalanx = a mini polis (microcosm) o Still different groups within the phalanx (some braver, some older, etc)  Serving the phalanx will become a mark of citizenship  At most 500 people in one phalanx  Must ask the winning side to remove the dead  Hoplite must provide their own armor  Greeks never really develop cavalry  Once Hoplite fighting becomes formulaic, no other forms are accepted (archers, slingers) o Except during Peloponnesian war and thereafter  Casualties are very low in Hoplite fighting  The more people you have in a phalanx, the better o Because of prestige, people start scavenging for armor  The Hoplites start to demand a say in how the Hoplite army is run and who they fight with o Expansion of oligarchy  In Argos, they are refused  Causes a violent coo d’état and chased out of the city  The leader, Pheidon is made a single man leader (tyrannos)  Most common way to form a tyranny  Some call it the Hoplite revolution  Many choose to do the same as in Argos o Most become tryannies at some stage  Except Sparta  A minority of tyrannies are formed from lower class revolutions  Tyrants might try and solve this by forming new colonies  Another way, stasis (in fighting, violence) is so bad the tyrants are seen as mediators o People decide that they need someone to help take back control of a city  Tyrants want to legitimize and institutionalize their power o Some place themselves at the center of religion (hold religious festivals, sponsor poets and playwrights, build temples)  Delphi – center of prophecy  The priests would give you the answer you wanted if you payed them  Kind of like a blessing  If one is supposed to be great, they have a near death experience (often found in these cases)  Says that they know your greatness is coming o Hire mercenaries and have the support of the Hoplite army  Usually tries to pass on power to the son o Often rejected because the population do not consider him as important/necessary as the first generation tyrant  Must become aggressive and violent to maintain power during the later generations  Mainland Greece – no tyrants from 508BC onwards Section 2: Effects   Tyrants try and center religion around themselves o Most build temples because they are public monuments (someone can see and attest to the benevolence of the tyrants rule) o Sponsor poets and playwrights  Importance of the written word  Competition between tyrants through poetry and art o No fighting because both tyrants would be illegally in power  Athens take this to a greater degree o Tyrant inogurates the Great Dionysia  Greece’s largest dramatic festival  Institutionalizes literary/dramatic competition  Seizes on the rise of drama and comedy  Prestige of winning is huge  Puts Athens at the center of literary creativity  First tragic playwright is Thespis (thespians derives from)  Tyrants build theatres  Found new colonies in the West of the Mediterranean to help solve land shortage  Help monitor the polis o Greater use of mercenaries by tyrants causes this monetization o Less bardering  Seen as focusing Greece’s economy  Prepared literary age that was to come (Classical Age)  Focused Greek religion o Sponsored a lot of literature regarding religion  Can more clearly describe the Gods  Tyrants represent a transition between warrior society/state formation and coming democracy  They are not there solely by force o Many are purposefully placed there  Most came from outside the aristocratic class o Arete - inbred honor  Tyrants illustrate that people beyond the upper class can have a say in Greek affairs Lecture 7 (Rise of Sparta) 9/4/2013 6:36:00 AM Section 1: Introduction to Sparta  Spartans: o a closed society o largely oral history o Historians traveling to Sparta got very vague answers  i.e. banishment of money  could only be rumour  did not have much use for money  main job is to train for war  slaves collect food and the rest is made by the lower class o self-sufficient society (enough marble, limestone, iron, food, etc)  enslave enough people to keep things going o Surrounded by mountains (Tigetos mountains)  Causes isolation  Not a lot of contract with the rest of the Hellenic world  Why they did not need any money o Lived in the Peloponnese o Reached their peak at the early 500BC  Very stable  Into 400BC, start to have demographic problems  Spartan empire during the 300s o Athens had many recognizable things  Democracy  Schools  Freedom of speech o Every aspect of life controlled by the state in Sparta o No literary culture o No permanent buildings o Full time standing army o Ritualized transvestites o Scheduled annual mass murder o Women exercised more power than in the rest of Greece o Lakedaimonians: how Spartans identify themselves  Full citizen male and females  Spartans = male warriors  Includes the chora o Has not undergone a synoikismos (urban fusion) o Next to nothing to see in Sparta compared to Athens   Their army made them famous  Boys were schooled solely in war  Helped lead the Greeks to victory against the Persians  Sparta is at it’s peek during the late Archaic Age o Most secure with the Spartan syste
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