HIST 205 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Erasmus, Johannes Gutenberg, Ultimate Power

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23 Jul 2016
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1. Week 15: 2015-12-07
Conclusion:
Decline in knowledge of Greek.
Latin was used as a language of science and knowledge.
Aristotle was not well-known in the middle ages.
oBut, he did become influential afterwards…
The eastern empire eventually fell.
oFall of Constantinople in 1453 CE by Ottoman Empire.
Exile of Byzantine scholars.
oThey fled to Italy.
The Renaissance c. 15th-17th centuries:
Texts were gradually translated to Latin.
Rediscovery of several classical texts characterises the Renaissance.
oThis is a revival taste for Greco-Roman texts.
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468 CE)
oCreated the Printing press**
oFaster, cheaper way to produce copies of texts.
Several copies can be printed in several hours instead of
months.
Most influential person during the Renaissance.
oFrancesco Petrarca (Petrarch) (1304-1374 CE)
oHe didn’t like the Middle Ages.
oMostly used Latin.
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oConsidered it the Dark Age.
Because, people did not study ancient text before.
Avid collector of antique manuscripts.
Responsible for “Dark age” Hatred.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536 CE):
Made new editions of the New testaments in Greek and Latin.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616 CE):
oProduced numerous works…
Antony and Cleopatra
Julius Caesar
Coriolanus
Timon of Athens
Classical themes become attractive afterwards
In museums, there will be displays of Modern Europe set in
Greco/Roman world/myth.
From 18th century to the Present Day.
oGibbon’s “fall” book had been published on 1776 CE.
oThe Founding father looked back to Roman population and
liked the idea of: liberty & rejection of tyranny.
oAristocracy.
oCivic virtues, liberty.
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus… (supposedly c.519 – 430 BC)
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