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Lecture: Napoleon

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Lecture: Napoleon January 24, 2013 QUESTION: Was Napoleon the successor of the Revolution, or its betrayer? Napoleon Bonaparte • b. 1769-1821, emperor 1804-1815 • historical assessments • who was Napoleon? • rise to power: military success and the Abbé Sieyès • 1798 military failure in Egypt • return to France, revolutionary government once again under attack • need general to protect government and constitution-->NAPOLEON! • 1799 Napoleon suspends the Directory • the Consulate (1799-1804), replacing the Directory ◦ government by 3 consoles ▪ Napoleon is the first ▪ under them is the Senate, who nominate people for Council of State Conquest and Empire • military tactics ◦ famous for moving large armies at an incredible speed ◦ soldiers live off the land while battling ◦ soldiers are loyal • war and expansion • Britain, Austria, Russia = Second Coalition ◦ defeated with Peace of Amiens ▪ formally acknowledged French conquests up to that point • Third Coalition ◦ Napoleon tries to invade Britain ◦ defeated by Nelson at Battle of Trafalgar • Confederation of the Rhine ◦ FR. allies who will protect them ◦ last nail in the coffin of the HRE • Treaties of Tilsit ◦ signed after Nap. bests both Prussian and Russian armies ◦ Prussia loses land ◦ Napoleon promises to stay out of Russian quarrels with Ottoman Empire ◦ Russian ports must be closed to British ships • Napoleon takes spain and puts brother Joseph on the throne • Austria defeated again, Prussia discouraged, Russia neutralized, Britain left alone to challenge • the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) and the Atlantic Context Administrative Changes • governance • the Concordat (1801) and Pius VI ◦ declared Catholicism the religion of the majority ◦ final authority lies with pope for choosing bishops ◦ Church has to give up land it nationalized during the revolution ◦ Napoleon abandons revolutionary calendar, returning to gregorian one ▪ back to sundays and religious holidays ◦ Organic Articles ▪ put Church under state control again ▪ government had to approve before clerics could read any papal decrees in churches + had to read state decrees in churches • the Napoleonic Code (1804) ◦ state control of basic and secondary schooling ◦ slavery reintroduced to French colonies ◦ reinforced patriarchal structure ◦ men firmly in control of all property • Criminal Code ◦ gives employers upper hand against employees ◦ can't go anywhere unless you have a passbook • Meritocracy, based on service to the state • France moving towards financial solvency Fading Glory • the Continental System ◦ Britain is one foe Napoleon has yet to
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