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Lecture- The Industrial Revolution.docx

4 Pages

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

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Lecture: The Industrial Revolution Transformations • structure of the economy: agricultural to industrial • landscape: rural to urban • social: farming to industrial worker • technological: hand to machinery • energy: organic to mineral • materials: expanding palette, organic to mineral, wood to iron Geography and Timing • Britain was clear leader ◦ 1760-1850 ◦ per capita income, industrial development, technology • Belgium (1820), Switzerland (1830) • France (1850) • US (1840), Germany (1860) • Laggards: Italy, Netherlands Questions • why it occurred • why it happened where/when it did • the role of religion, politics, law, science, and trade • how transformative was it Leading Sectors: Textiles • first sector: British cotton textiles • no cotton industry before 1700, world leading by 1800 • import substitutions, world trade • imports banned 1721 Process and linkages • processes ◦ carding ◦ spinning ◦ weaving ◦ finishing • geography ◦ India ◦ Egypt ◦ US ◦ World Inventions and technology • James Hargreaves ◦ spinning jenny 1760 • Richard Arkwright ◦ water frame 1769 • Samuel Crompton ◦ spinning mule 1774 • Edmund Cartwright ◦ power loom 1785 • Joseph-Marie Jacquard ◦ loom 1804 • Eli Whitney ◦ cotton gin 1793 • Charles Tennant ◦ bleaching 1799 New Materials • chemicals: sulphuric acid, soda, chlorine • iron and steel. Coke smelting. Puddling • new buildings • railways • new tools Energy • limit to energy use: wood • water and wind
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