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Lecture-The Holocaust.docx

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

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Lecture: The Holocaust The Vernacular • Holocaust ◦ Ancient Greek word meaning "consumed by fire" or burnt offering" • Shoah ◦ "The Calamity" ◦ Jewish • Porajmos ◦ "The Devouring" ◦ Roma and Sinti Peoples • Genocide ◦ controversial term The Foundations of Holocaust Study • 1944-1945 Liberation and Discovery ◦ shocked most by the scope of the crimes • Post-War Trials ◦ "crimes against humanity" term invented ◦ Nuremberg '36-37 • Period of Silence ◦ people didn't discuss the Hol. openly much ◦ perpetrators couldn't do so ◦ victims unwilling to revisit • 1961 The Trial of Adolf Eichmann ◦ war criminal captured ◦ trial in Israel ◦ scholars attending the trial took note and addressed his inhumanity ◦ Holocaust studies as a field took off Anti-Semitism Before 1933 • European Anti-Semitism ◦ not a new phenomenon ◦ especially in Eastern Europe ◦ pogroms • Scientific Racism/social Darwinism ◦ Arthur de Gobineau wrote book saying humanity divided not by language, but by race ◦ Wilhelm Maar said Nordic race in life-death struggle against Jews ▪ used "Scientific Racism" called antisemitism ◦ Houston Stewart Chamberlain claimed modern Aryan race needed to combat foreign racial influences, advocating pan-Germanism • Anti-Semitism in Weimar Germany ◦ stab-in-the-back theory ▪ Ger. betrayed and sabotaged by Judeo-Bolshevism to lose the war ◦ Hitler and Nazy ideology ▪ Mein Kampf ▪ Jewish Bolshevism ▪ Lebensraum ▪ communism conspiracy to thwart natural superiority of Aryan race Judenpolitik and Persecution in the Nazi State • The People's Community ◦ Racial purity ◦ action against people who would pollute it • The Concentration Camp system ◦ Dachau is first camp in 1933 ▪ not just Jewish inmates ▪ where Nazis dumped their rivals and enemies ▪ "corrective" camps ◦ Arbeit Macht Frei ▪ work will set you free • Legal Exclusion and Discrimination ◦ the Nuremberg Laws 1935 ▪ inter-marriage with Jews forbidden, as well as other restrictive anti-Jew laws ◦ Citizenship Law 1935 ▪ stripped Jews of their rights as German citizens (hold office, vote) • Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass ◦ Nov. 9-10, 1938 ◦ riot ◦ synagoges burnt and destroyed ◦ Jewish men rounded up for humiliation ◦ police and fire brigade under orders not to help/interfere The Early War Years 39-40 • Emigration, deportation and ghettoization ◦ emigration ▪ SS. St. Louis ▪ passenger ship left Germany crammed with refugees ▪ turned away from every port in N. America and sent back to Germany ▪ "encouraged" to leave (forced out) ◦ deportation ▪ the Madagascar Plan ▪ transfer all Jews in Ger. terr. to a colony, dump them there ▪ Br. navy blocked this plan ◦ ghettoization and consolidation ▪ marshall them in Eastern territories, accelerated after 1939 ▪ largest in Warsaw ▪ mass malnutrition and starvation ▪ forced to wear yellow star of David • Extraordinary Pacification ◦ Einsatzgruppen ▪ special units followed combat troops with orders to murder all Polish intelligentsia and communists ▪ Jewish men commonly also rounded up and killed by these squads The T4 Program 39-40 • Eugenics movement ◦ good breeding and sterilization to the threats to the German body • life unworthy of life ◦ euthanasia of disabled • killing centres ◦ first Nazi usage of the gas chamber ◦ carbon monoxide gas ◦ mass euthanasia test • dress reh
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