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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Thursday January 24 Napoleon Was Napoleon the successor of the Revolution, or its betrayer? I. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821, emperor 1804-1815) A. Historical Assessments 1. Napoleon was a breaker of worlds a) Made and remade most of the European continent almost at will b) Ever since we have made and unmade him 2. Both the culmination and undoing of the revolution a) Promoted an authority and militaristic regime b) While believing in enlightenment ideals c) Modernizing military practice 3. The revolution itself had been contradictory and thus a contradictory Napoleonic era made sense a) We need to look at collaboration and negotiation and the territories it conquers b) Continuing political laboratory (1) Ideas are floating around and playing with them B. Who was Napoleon? 1. Son of noble Corsican family 2. He is eventually offered a place in the national military academy in Paris a) Able to get into the french army through this 3. Brilliant, melancholic, ambitious and tireless - contradictory a) Both mild and stern, kind and unforgiving, generous and egotistical etc. 4. He had always been faithful to revolution - vehicle for his ambitions a) lead forces which put down an uprising in paris in 1795 b) The following year he was given the charge of french forces in austria and italy by the directory c) He had amazing successes (1) Italy is where we see his ambition coming out (a) He authorizes looding and starts negotiating peace treaties independently d) By 1978 he is leading an excursion in egypt (1) One of his few military failures (a) First attempt by a western power to occupy territory in the middle east C. Rise to Power: Military Success and the Abbe Sieyes 1. Sieyes were trying to find a general to help protect revolutionary gov a) November 1799 Napoleon declared the directory suspended (1) Remarkably successful coup b) In the wake, this established a consulate D. The Consulate (1799-1804) 1. Government by three consuls, Napoleon being the first a) Under was an appointed senate (1) Nominated men to sit in the council of state b) Institutionalize strong authority to provide stability and tighten control over provinces c) 1802 Napoleon took the title of consul for life 2. France became an empire and Napoleon the emperor II. Conquest and Empire A. Military Tactics 1. Army from mercenaries to citizen soldiers a) Men are more committed and there are more of them b) Wars now fought between peoples not kings c) Think of New Model Army 2. N. efficient organizer and good strategist a) Armies live off the land so they are able to move quickly b) Trained to executive his orders with precision - intense drills 3. Very good with artillery a) But does not move that much because they are heavy b) Tactics that people continue to use until the mid 19th c. (1) Shaping European warfare c) Battalions in columns and lines - great flexibility d) Rewarded skill with promotion (1) This bread intense loyalty - key to success 4. Battle of Auslalitz in 1805 a) AgainstAutria b) Exposes a fake plan and tricks them into attacking c) Then crushes enemies with relative ease d) Arguably his greatest success B. War and Expansion 1. By the time he came to power, France was at war with the second coalition a) Agroup of forces come together against French revolutionary expansion (1) Britain, Austria and Russia b) They were defeated by 1802 at the peace of Amiens (1) They all had to formally acknowledge french conquest up to this date 2. Third coalition, same countries a) Napoleon tried to invade Britain: Trafalgar (1) The Napoleonic navy is obliterated (2) While France was dominant on land, Britain ruled the seas 3. Austria gave up territories in Italy 4. Napoleon organized confederation of the Rhine a) Small, 16, German states b) N. is set up as its protector c) Members are his allies who agreed to support his wars d) Final nail in the coffin in the HRE (1) We get its dissolution 5. 1807 Treaties of Tilsit a) Defeats both Prussian and Russian armies (1) Both had to accept territorial disputes and N. agreed he would not get involved in their feud with the HRE 6. 1808 took spain a) N. brother was installed in spanish throne 7. 1809Austria was defeated again 8. Napoleon’s position in Europe seemed invincible a) France had achieved both its natural boundaries and more b) In the east to the rhine and to the west modern day Belgium (1) Also installed leaders in italian states, spanish throne and significant ally in the German states C. The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) and theAtlantic Context 1. Haiti rebelled in 1791 - was the most prosperous of French colonies 2. Leader a) Skillful commander and former slave b) Agrees to fight off the powers fighting Haiti on France’s behalf (1) So long as the revolutionary regime promised to free Haiti if successful (2) Issued a constitution calling for colonial autonomy and a free black state 3. In 1802 under pressure from sugar planters, N. took his navy and took it over a) He then reimposed slavery in all colonies b) The leader was taken prisoner and died in prison c) Tropical disease killed almost all troops (1) All reinforcements were blocked by the british navy 4. In 1804 a) They won their independence b) Became the first black free state c) This was hardly welcome by France (1) Tension between the ideals they want to lift up to and whats happening III. Administrative Changes A. Governance 1. Council of state quickly became the most administrative body a) Finance, french affairs and war b) Advised the emperor and drafted laws c) Served as a training ground for bureaucrats who would provide the next generation of able statesmen 2. Financially a) The bank of france is established in 1800 (1) Credit can be obtained by tying it to the credit of the state not the individual (2) Provided stability and easy borrowing to finance war b) Paper money was also recalled (1) Helped stabilize currency c) System of indirect taxes was expanded (1) Taxes past on to the last person involved in sale (i.e sales tax) 3. Education a) Revolutionary regimes had already taken control of schooling b) N. establish state secondary schools - lycees (1) Enlightenment reform 4. Religion a) Goes up and down b) N. saw its utility - kept people happy despite inequalities of the world c) France was at odds with the pope even though they were catholic (1) Because of the civil constitution of the french clergy (a) Made the clergy loyal to the government not the pope d) Pope Pius II (1) Wanted to re-establish connections in 1801 (a) So him and N. established a concordat 5. Senate was ceremonial B. The concordat (1801) and Pius VII 1. Final authority lies with the pope 2. The church had to give up lands 3. N. abandons the revolutionary calendar a) Went back to having sundays and religious holidays b) N. also promulgated the organic articles (1) without consulting the pope (2)
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