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Lecture

7 The Industrial Revolution.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIST 215
Professor
Sarah Waurechen
Semester
Winter

Description
Tuesday January 29th The Industrial Revolution Transformation of the Western Economy I. European Economy A. Transformation was profound and deep 1. Graph shows you how much European states’GDP’s grew B. Big transformation going on in western economies and things are changing rapidly 1. From 1800 onward II. What was the Industrial Revolution A. Transformations 1. Structure of the economy: agricultural to industrial 2. Landscape: rural to urban a) London by 1800 was by far the largest city in the world b) This urbanization is thus most intense in britain 3. Social: farming to industrial worker 4. Technological: Hand to machinery a) Major theme of the industrial revolution b) Allows transformations to happen 5. Energy: organic to mineral a) Has environmental consequences b) CO2 rising is a consequence 6. Materials: expanding palette, organic to mineral, wood to iron a) More and more kinds of materials are being used B. Geography and Timing 1. Britain was clearly the leader (1760-1850) a) Per capita income, industrial development, technology b) It begins much earlier than any other country in the world 2. Belgium (1820), Switzerland (1830) a) Belgium: southern areas are somewhat mountainous 3. France (1850) a) After Napoleon III came to power b) Big transformation of french economy 4. US (1840), Germany (1860) a) They become more important than Britain at this time b) Industrial leadership had shifter to Germany 5. Laggards: Italy, Netherlands a) Italy: slow in having an industrial revolution (1) To this day the italian economy is dominated by family firms b) Netherlands: for a long period of time were very rich (like the UK) (1) In the 1760s though they do not have an industrial revolution C. Questions 1. Why did the industrial revolution occur? 2. Why did it happen where and when it did? 3. What is the role of religion, politics, law, science, trade etc. 4. How transformative was it really? 5. Was there really an industrial revolution? How can we define it? a) Only in the 20th c. did traditional economy truly disappear III. Leading sectors: textiles, chemicals, iron A. Textiles 1. First sector: British cotton textiles a) Before this they only had wool industries that they would sell b) They began producing finished textiles and grew in the 1800s c) So it began very important for their economy 2. No cotton industry before 1700, world leading by 1800 3. Import substitutional, world trade, imports banned 1721 B. Process and Linkage 1. Advancement in one process caused all the other processes to also advance 2. Processes a) Carding: scraping cotton to all the fibers are alive b) Spinning: spin it into yarn c) Weaving: creation of finished fabrics by passing a thread between levels d) Finishing: unfinished cloth needed to be colored 3. Geography: tied into a world trade a) India: originally brought from india b) Egypt: and egypt c) US: and eventually the US d) World C. Inventions and Technology 1. James Hargreaves Spanning Jenny (1760) 2. RichardArkwright Water Frame (1769) 3. Samuel Crompton Spinning Mule (1774) 4. Edmund Cartwright Power Loom (1785) 5. Joseph-Marie Jacquard Loom (1804) 6. Eli Whitney Cotton Gin (1793) 7. Charles Tennant Bleaching (1799) D. New Materials 1. Chemicals: sulphuric acid, soda, chlorine 2. Iron and steel, coke smelting, puddling a) Britain began producing so much iron it built buildings and bridges with it b) Allowed for new ways of doing things like railways 3. New buildings 4. Railways 5. New Tools a) Which allows for new manufacturing processes b) So britain began to be a huge iron producer (1) They imported a lot of iron IV. Energy, steam engine A. Limit to energy use: wood 1. Wood is a basic fuel in the ancient and middle worlds 2. Around 1500 a lot of energy is coming from animals and human beings B. Water and wind power C. The steam engine: coal energy 1. 1700 coal is becoming more important 2. By the 1850s it is super dominant in the british economy D. Unlimited
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