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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Tuesday February 5th32 Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism How successful were conservatives at suppressing the forces of change? I. Restoration Europe A. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) 1. Treaty of Paris in 1814 a) Officially ended the Napoleonic wars b) Allowed France to retain its lands acquired before November 1972 (1) But France gave up claims to everything else (2) Diplomats fromAustria, Prussia, GB and Russia met (a) How to redistribute territory that no longer belonged to France (b) Create a balance of power (c) Discuss how best to block future revolutionary movements (3) Dominant Figure: Metternich ofAustria (a) Redraws the map of Europe to last for several generations to come i) Congress Poland (1) Part of the Congress system (2) Poland had been divided into 3 partitions (3) This recreates the polish states as a russian protectorate (4) This is balance by giving the northern half of saxony to Prussia, Belgium to Dutch republic,Austria has given.... ii) German Confederation (1) Remain thoroughly independent - Not yet German unification 2. 100 days uprising a) The balance of power system held b) Creation of the Concert of Europe (1) System put in place to protect the settlement in the wake of the N. wars (2) GB, Prussia,Austria, Russia, and France to meet annually (3) Guided by conservatism: ideology that pushes back against liberal and revolutionary challenges to tradition order (a) Emphasizes monarchical legitimacy, importance of hereditary succession and the role of state churches (b) At Vienna there is no public debate about the map i) The people are not consulted ii) Old order acting out its traditional role iii) Politics as a game for elites (c) States emerged only through gradual growth i) By divine sanctioned monarchy and those born to rule ii) Not revolution B. Conservatism 1. Joseph de Maistre (d. 1821) a) French writer who defended both crown and altar (1) Denied the concept of natural rights (2) Denied the subjects ability to bridal sovereign power (a) Believed power came only from god and was vested in the divinely ordained monarch (3) Blamed the revolution on the philosophes b) Advocated that they keep control through violence 2. In Britain conservatism concerns itself with fiscal issues a) With the help of theAnglican church b) Stop the slide towards liberalism 3. Industrialization was very much transformation Europe a) So despite conservatives, change was happening b) Tended to keep in place the centralized N. bureaucracies that had been created 4. New ideological challenges: liberalism and socialism 5. Romanticism a) Artistic and cultural movement taking place from the end of the enlightenment until the early-mid 19th c. b) Intimately connected to conservatism c) Celebrated religious devotion and the emotional side of human existence d) Prevalent in music, art and literature e) Evangelicalism (1) Religion of the heart (2) Connection of faith and spirit f) Driven by the sense that something had been lost (1) Seems to go with conservatism (2) But not because it was already lost in pre-revolutionary world II. Liberalism A. Political Liberalism 1. Definition a) Worldview founded on principles of liberty and equality b) Things that initially drove english and french revolutions and enlightenment c) Believed in inevitability in human progress 2. Expansion of the franchise (vote) a) Basic human rights derived from the state of nature b) Freedom of the press and conscience c) Individuals should all be equal under the law d) Government run by (1) Constitution (2) Elected legislative assembly e) Defended private property (1) Monarchy cannot claim what we own (2) Anti feudalist (3) Your property is your ticket towards political influence (a) Those invested should have a say B. Economic Liberalism: that government is best which governs least 1. Adam Smith 9d.1790) a) Government should be laissez-faire (1) The invisible hand will guide everything (2) By leaving things alone it will guide the economy towards proper growth (3) Their actions will work towards the general good of society (4) It was in the interest of 2/3 groups to act in this interest 2. Jeremy Bentham (d.1832) a) Utilitarianism: the greatest good for the greatest number (1) Generally what economic liberals are saying 3. Freedom to work a) Nothing should interfere between the employer and their workers (1) Should be a direct relationship (2) To the advantage of the factory workers b) This is the thinking that is driving advance particularly in Britain III. Socialism A. Utopian Socialism 1. Movement largely based in France which provided the original critique of the IR a) Too much emphasis on production and not distribution b) Interest in the social question: how to ameliorate working conditions 2. Count Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon (d.1825) a) Aristocrat who denied the validity of aristocratic privilege (1) Least useful element in society (2) Calls all non-working people thieves (3) Science is the key to progress an
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