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11 Continuing Cultural and Economic Shifts in the Late 19th Century .docx

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Tuesday February 19th M-5-37A (McLENNAN) THURSDAY CONFERENCES Continuing Cultural and Economic Shifts in the Late 19th Century What were the most significant changes in this period? I. The Political Context A. Victorian Britain 1. Queen Victoria (183701901) a) Things start to get better b) Middle class respectability and moral reform (1) Observance of a struct moral code and behavior (a) Family (b) Living according to ones station (c) Maintain your status or clim up the social ladder (2) Temperance movements (a) Attempt to get rid of alcohol and drinking and prostitution i) lead by evangelical movements ii) Make the middle and lower classes respectable iii) Teach people self-reliance and frugality (3) Capitalism, self reliance and hard work (4) Known for empire 2. 1848: board of health a) Allowed the state to intervene in areas of health b) So extreme or dangerous its okay for the state to intervene c) So in extreme conditions they can come in 3. Florence Nightengale a) Nurse during the war b) Battled long and hard to try and improve healthcare and nutrition (1) Fight the belief that you did not want to spoil soldiers (2) Tries to advocate for them (3) Force the gov. to make concessions and improve conditions (4) Also fights against the stigma of nursing (a) Not a respectable profession (b) More of a prostitutes profession 4. 1867: expansion of the electorate a) Parties now take note they must make mass appeals b) So calls for support through the media and pick issues that resonate with the population 5. 1853-1856 Crimean War a) England and Russia goes to war and England wins B. Russia 1. 2. Autocracy largely remained in place 3. But liberalism is coming about 4. Still 95% rural and theres almost no middle class 5. A debate emerged a) Westernizers vs. slavophiles (1) How russia should go about modernizing itself (2) Follow the western example or find their own russian path to modernity (3) 1861: Tsar emancipated the serfs 6. Expansion a) Siberia was becoming very important - gold 7. Self identified russian revolutionaries a) Nihlists (1) Accepted no dogmas - stood in opposition to westernizers and slavophiles (2) Looked at the peasantry as an untapped revolutionary force (3) Rejected current systems - rather unclear about what they wanted to replace their systems with (4) Also rejected contemporary moral codes (a) Freed them from restrictions against violence (b) Often plotted assassinations b) Anarchists (1) Reject the very essence of government: reject the state (2) Also turned to the peasantry as a revolutionary force (3) Also violent (4) Leader Bakunin “destruction is a creative passion” C. France 1. Also guided by an imperialist crown - 1850’s a) Looking at liberal economic reforms b) Get significant economic growth c) French economy is booming d) 1869 they finance the construction of the suez canal (1) Previously you had to sail around africa which opens up trade e) Also embroiled in the franco-prussian war (1) reduced the boundaries of france (2) Lost alsace-lorraine f) Civil war broke out in the wake of f/p war (1) So we get the paris commune 2. The Paris Commune (1871) a) Defend both paris and republicanism b) provided hope for the left and terrified the right c) Fought very bravely although they were ultimately crushed by a more conservative army 3. The Third Republic (1870-1940) a) Eventually stabilized b) At first its very conservative, then becomes moderate and then radical once again c) Right wing nationalist challenges set in (1) Often anti semitic (2) I.e Dreyfus affair (a) Because of anti-semitism than anything else 4. Dreyfus Affair (1870-1906) II. The Second industrial Revolution (roughly 1850-1914) A. Defining traits 1. New inventions were much more closely linked to scientific discoveries 2. Bussiness was a lot bigger 3. Birth of the assembly line 4. Affect northern, western and central europe and US 5. Mobility 6. Key markers are often steel and electricity 7. Railroad to first B. Steel and electricity 1. 1856 english investor Bessemer came up with a new way of making steel a) Faster and cheaper to manufacture it b) More consistent quality as well c) Stronger, more durable and flexible than iron d) Allowed for bigger, better, standard machinery e) Used in everything from buildings, machines, ships f) 1859 the first british naval ship was set to see 2. Electricity a) Started in the 17th c. b) Until the 19th c. theres no way to generate or harness electricity c) Siemens in 1867 was able to manipulate electricity (1) After this we get undersee cables, the telephone and incandescent lamps (2) Will also remain a luxury until later C. Other breakthroughs 1. X-ray 2. Bacteriology a) Hygienic movements b) Preventative medicine 3. Sewing machine 4. Mary Curie a) French inventor who discovered radioactivity 5. The universe is not completely predictable 6. 1905 Einstein publishes his theory of relativity a) E = MCsquared b) E = mass times the speed of light 7. Previous generation assumed they lived in a world that they knew what was going on in D. Travel and communications 1. Trams and subways - modern public transits 2. 1900 paris metro begins running 3. Late 19 c. cars were also invented a) Lead to the realization of oil b) Era of assembly line production (1) Cars were one of the first things produced this way c) new status symbol d) construction of better roads e) Infrastructure and technology come together 4. Red Flag Effect a) Cant go more than 2 miles per hour b) Every vehicle needs 3 people in it carrying a red flag to tell them youre coming 5. Wright brothers first successful flight in 1903 6. More europeans than ever were on the go a) They had money and time to do this b) new vacation culture and
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