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12 Imperialism.docx

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

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Thursday, February 21, 2013 Imperialism How did Europeans go about dominating the world, and how did they maintain and justify that power? I. Historiography A. The process by which one state with superior military strength and technology imposes itself on a less developed region 1. Focus 1880-1914 - modern imperial project B. J.R Seeley and Imperialism Experienced 1. Seeley was an english historian who lived through the british imperial period a) Need to tell national histories through imperial ones b) So narratives are tied into histories of colonies (1) Tied to development and progress in the homeland C. Postcolonial History 1. Written by the colonized after the formal colonial experience was over 2. Chart the power dynamic of the historic empires as well as the lingerings of those dynamics post formal independence a) Reject the european vision of their history as inauthentic b) Point to categories like development as a form of western imposition c) Modes of controlling and devaluing present peoples D. the “new Imperial History” 1. Tries to utilize local knowledges in order to re-assess the power relations a) Inter disciplinary b) Does not reject european knowledge though c) Interested in the colonizers and the colonized d) Rethink empire from the point of view of different people operating through the same system and their diverging strategies in coping with that system II. Older colonial Models A. Christianization 1. Impulse to christianize in the new world 2. Spain had already reached south america 3. 16th and 17th centuries english and french reached north america 4. all carried out the christian missing in different ways 5. spain a) papal bull christianizing everything b) either submit or not c) clergy aggressively tried to christianize the population and justify spanish domination d) More treaty based 6. french a) sent missionaries like the jesuits 7. english a) more interested in making a christian nation for themselves than converting people b) their own spiritual development B. Settlement 1. Spain built an empire of conquest vs english/french a) Black legend - english (1) france and england built settlement colonies in contrast (2) acquired and defined their rights of possessions by cultivating what they took to be empty land and improvement of it so not conquest like spain! (3) Colonies didn’t initially bring much wealth but in thw 17th c. plantation colonies set in and they reaped the benefits (4) Slaves are driving this b) Spanish mineral resources dried out so their conquest is not working as well C. Trade 1. Commerce and trade became very imporant a) The english imagined themselves as seaborn (1) excape the compulsions that had previously detroyed all land based empires (2) Empire for liberty and trade and as a result last forever (3) So you get the triangle trade which is increasingly important (a) In europe people go to africa and get slaves and trade them for a profit with the new world, the new world shoots out slaves and bring raw material to the mc who then trade finished goods to the new world (4) Gradually the emphasis started shifting to the riches and wealth to be found in the east which was entirely about trade not settlement (so extraction of sources without european production of them) 2. Colonies begin getting dominion status and being freed a) The second industrial revolution still shifted the context - emphasis on finding raw materials without creating new europe’s in miniature b) Look at pre-existing society III. The Scramble for Africa and the New Imperial Push (africa is very different depending on where you are) A. British vs. France 1. French expansion a) French empire was on decline and they did not want to be like spain b) Seized madagascar and Tunisia, then tried to control Senegal using networks c) Did possess control over these lands though just not with the force they wanted 2. The Congo a) 1879 Henri stanley got the congo b) Leopold II from Belgium got central africa opened up to him as a result c) 1880 france claimed territory over the right bank of the congo 3. The Suez Canal, Egypt and the Sudan a) 1875 the brits got financial control over the suez canal b) This was very important for their economy c) By this point britain already possessed significant interest in india d) 1882 egyptian instability threatened both profits from and access to the suez canal (1) in 1882 the brits conquer egypt making it a protectorate (2) This also gave them control over the sudan (3) the sudanese rose up in the 1880s against the brits and egypt (a) but they don’t really care (b) brits are only interested in the sudan when france makes a move for the territory - spurred on by competition (c) so not so much about wanting the territory than it is about besting imperial rivalries and protecting existing territories against other powers e) 1898 brits send a force to capture sudan (1) does so with relative ease (2) runs into french army and the situation gets resolved through diplomacy (3) so willing to use force agains
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