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13 The Great War.docx

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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

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HIST 215 Tuesday, February 26 The Great War Question: How do we describe something as traumatic definitive, and unprecedented as WWI? I. Causes A. Militarism 1. Arms race a) Stockpiling of new technologies (1) Machine guns (2) Planes 2. Naval Race a) B/w UK + Ger (1) Ger (a) 1897 Kaizer Wilhelm expanded naval expenditure (b) Goal was to have navy 2x size of UK (c) Developing submarines (U-boats) (2) UK (a) Launched the Dreadnought i) Powerful, revolutionary ships B. Nationalism 1. Balkans a) Greek, Macedonians, Bosnians, Turkish, Herzegovina b) 1878: Austro-Hungarian empire annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina (1) Slav nationalists want B&H to be part of Serbia (2) A-H annexed b/c of Muslim young Turks a threat (3) Russians back Serbian armament to mobilize against A-H (4) Crisis was averted b/c neither had support from rest of Europe (5) Few years late, Balkan league formed to limit the Ottoman rule (a) So many nations competing for autonomy and limited resources C. Imperialism 1. The Moroccan crisis a) Germany and France averted war in the first Moroccan crisis (1) Algeciras July 1906 stated that Morocco would maintain independence (2) But it strained relations between Germany and France/UK b) 1911 second Moroccan crisis (3) Despite the Algeciras agreement, France made morocco a protectorate and send in troops (4) Germany responded by sending a gunboat and demanding imperial compensation through awarding them the French Congo (5) War averted when part of the French Congo changed hands (6) But tensions helped solidify the alliance system and increased European animosity (7) The carving up of the world was disturbing the balance of power and encouraging bitter rivalry B. Alliances a) The Triple Alliance (1882: Germany, A-H, Italy) b) The Triple Entente (1905: England, France, Russia) c) 3 Principles HIST 215 Tuesday, February 26 (1) Germany and France have aggressive and historic rivalry (2) Russia and A-H have aggressive historic rivalry (3) Germany afraid of being attacked on two fronts d) 2 main camps in Europe (1) If any one power goes to war with any opposing power, the whole of Europe is going to be contractually obliged to go to war 2. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand June 28th 1914 a) Franz Ferdinand (1) Heir to A-H throne b) Black Hand: Slavic nationalists (1) Gavrilo Princip assassinated him c) A-H provided an ultimatum (1) Serbs responded by only rejecting one clause bit it did not matter - things had reached a boiling point II. Technical changes and the changing experience of warfare A. Trench Warfare 1. Main trenches 6-8 ft deep, half a mile to a mile long 2. Men fighting in the trenches dealt with: cold, wet, gunfire, rats, artillery 3. Provided more security than “no man‟s land” 4. To attack, precede with an artillery bombardment to weaken defenses and then send soldiers to go through no man‟s land B. The Skies and the Sea 1. Airplanes are the new technology, by end of 1916, fighter pilots deployed 2. Planes employed against civilian populations a) London, Rhineland, Paris, Berlin 3. Germans sent in U-boats to prevent supplies from getting to Britain a) Successful in sinking up to 1/4 of the ships to the British Isles C. The Home Front 1. Didn‟t exist before WW1 2. Total War: all people involved in the war a) Entire economy is devoted to the war effort (1) Women began to work (for lower wages though) b) Population is thoroughly incorporated into the war effect by way of propaganda (1) Play upon sense of patriotism and national duty (2) Need to defend one‟s nation at all costs (3) Ultimately rallied III. The Fighting A. The Schlieffen Plan 1. Knock France out of the war quickly and then move onto Russia, avoiding a war on two fronts 2. In reality: They swept Belgium a) The Germans retreated and dug in for st
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