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14 The Russian Revolution.docx

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McGill University
HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Thursday March 14, 2013 The Russian Revolution and the Communist Experiment How does the Russian Revolution compare to the other revolutions we have studied? I. 1905 A. Lenin (1870-1924) and the Bolshevik 1. He writes with the name as Lenin as a pseudonym b/c of his radicalism a) Expelled from university b/c he is too radical b) Sent to Siberia c) Expelled to Switzerland (1) Where he wrote, “What To Do” 2. Wanted to form the Bolshevik party a) Marxist revolution 3. Mensheviks a) Communist rivals were the majority (dubbed as minority) b) Bolsheviks are the minority (but means majority) c) Bolsheviks competing with the Communists 4. Socialist Revolutionarianism a) The Bolsheviks were also competing with the socialists b) Socialists preached rural worker values B. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 1. Vladivostok a) Russians wanted to build a railroad through this place (1) It’s in Manchuria b) Japanese boats launched a successful attack on Russians at Port Arthur c) Russians were trounced (1) Only supplied by one railway (2) They had inferior technology (3) Lack of supplies (4) Russians suffered humiliating defeat to Japan (a) Tzar signs treaty of Portsmouth (b) Defeat in the war made liberal calls for reform louder (c) Radicals kept on pushing for reform as well C. The Revolution of 1905 1. Tsar Nicholas II a) Decided to instate liberal reforms b) Workers strike in St Petersburg (1) When they failed to disperse, they were shot upon (Bloody Sunday) (2) Socialists fanned the flames of descent 2. October Manifesto and the Duma Soviets a) With the bulk of his forces in Manchuria, Tsar Nicholas was forced to compromise b) Granted freedom of the press, and freedoms of liberal nature c) Created the Duma d) Soviets: Meeting places for workers unions e) Military field corps established in order to accuse civilians (1) Autocratic tendencies II. 1917 A. The February Revolution 1. Defensists vs internationalists a) Defensists: Russia should defend themselves against a German invasion b) Internationalists: (Such as Lenin) Believed that WWI was a war amongst capitalists (1) They should boycott the war c) Rasputin: Healer of Tsar’s son B. The Petrograd Soviet of workers 1. 1914: St Petersburg becomes Petrograd in an attempt to modernize 2. A strike planned for the anniversary of Bloody Sunday a) Demonstrators demanded that a provisional government should be put in place to enact reforms b) Food riots were out c) Riots broke out and troops broke in (1) Some of the soldiers and the officers turned sides and they decided to support the people (2) Sailors mutinied and the arsenal of Petrograd was dissolved (3) Nicholas responded by dissolving the Duma (a) They just met at a different place 3. Nicholas found no military support in Petrograd a) Abdicated throne and then went to Michael (he refused) b) He and his family were put under house arrest C. A provisional government was put into place 1. Granted civil liberties a) Right to strike b) Democratized local government c) Creation of a constitution d) Granted amnesty to Tsarist prisoners 2. Had to share power with the Petrograd Soviet a) They were radical b) Composed of workers and soldiers c) They abided by them at first 3. Order Number one a) The Soviet no longer abided by rules of provisional government b) The army in the hands of the Soviet c) Soviets wanted to leave the war (1) Provisional government was liberal and wanted to stay in the war (2) Material hardship increased rural unrest 4. The Germans sent in Lenin back to Russia in a train cart a) They did this to get him Russia out of the war b) He told everyone to get out of the war c) He had a view to unite Europe under communism d) Weak Russian Bourgeoisie (1) Now all the proletariat had to do was to defeat them once and for all through revolution 5. Provisional government announced a new offensive in the war a) Lenin convinced the Bolsheviks that a new insurrection could succeed b) In October, Government seized Bolshevik newspapers and they mobilized troops c) Red Guards (1200) mobilized against Government D. The October Revolution 1. April Theses 2. Leon Trotsky a) Only one skirmish between forces occurred b) Provisional government gave up power after eight months c) New government seized banks, took control of unfriendly newspapers and destroyed libera
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