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17 The Holocaust.docx

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McGill University
HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

HIST 215 Thursday March 28, 2013 The Holocaust Question: How can we as historians describe the events of the Holocaust? • Treat as a singular event • Treat in comparison to other events I. The Vernacular A. Holocaust 1. Ancient Greek Word meaning „Consumed by Fire‟ or „burnt offering‟ B. Shoah 1. „the Calamity‟ 2. Yom Shoah (April 7-8th, 2013) C. Porajmos 1. „The Devouring‟ - Roma and Sinti peoples D. Genocide 1. Controversial II. The Foundations of Holocaust Study A. 1944-45: Liberation and Discovery 1. The Allies discovered the factories 2. Shocked the world B. Post-war trials 1. Nurmeburg War trials a) Came up with a new crime (crime against humanity) C. Period of silence 1. No one wanted to speak about it 2. The perpetrators did not want divulge information D. 1961: The Trial of Adolf Eichmann 1. Scholars attended it III. Anti-Semitism A. Not a new Phenomenon 1. Persecution widespread B. Pogroms 1. Eastern Europe 2. Local Riots and destruction C. Scientific Racism/Social Darwinism 1. Arthur de Gobineau (1816-82) a) Different races b) Inequal races 2. Wilhelm Maar: Anti-Semitism (1879) a) Expanded the views of Gobineau b) Constant struggle of Nordic people vs Semites 3. Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) a) Pan-Germanic unification b) Aryan race needs to fight the other races off to stay pure D. Anti-Semitism in Weimar Germany 1. Stab in the Back theory HIST 215 a) The Germans didn‟t lose WWI, the war was lost because of Judeo-Bolshevism (1) Jewry and Communism combined 2. HItler and Nazi Ideology a) Mein Kampf - 1825 (1) Jewish-Bolshevism (2) Lebensraum - Living space IV. „Judenpolitik‟ and Persecution in the Nazi State (1933-39) A. The Concentration Camp system 1. Dachau, est. 1933 a) First concentration camp b) Varied group of Nazi‟s enemies (1) Communists, Jews, Gays, Jahova‟s whitness 2. Arbeit Macht Frei a) Work will set you free b) In theory: The beating and the work will correct the problems that make people unable to live in society c) In practice: Just a way to kill them B. The „People‟s Community‟ 1. Racial Purity C. Legal Exclusion and Discrimination 1. The Nuremburg Laws, 1935 2. Citizenship Law, 1935 a) Mirrored with a propaganda campaign b) Reinforcement of racial stereotypes D. Kristallnacht - the „Night of Broken Glass‟ 1. Following the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris 2. Destroying Synagogues, killing Jews a) Cops ordered not to stop the riots unless they spread to German citizens 3. Nov 9-10, 1938 4. Removal of those who pose a threat to the German community V. The Early War Years. (1939-40) A. Emigration, Deportation and Ghettoization 1. Emigration a) Attempted to encourage German Jews into emigrating from German territory while taking their possessions b) SS. St. Louis (1) Passenger ship crammed with Jewish refugees (2) Turned away from North America because no one would accept Jews (a) Most died in the Holocaust c) Deportation: The Madagascar Plan (1) Germans wanted to round Jews up and send them to Madagascar (a) Jews would be dumped and would die of adverse conditions (b) British Navy: Too strong and they needed to be conquered in order for them to go through d) Ghettoization and Consolidation (1) Germans reverted to herding Jewish populations to urban centres HIST 215 (2) Warsaw: Herded 500K jews into small homes (a) 6-7 Jews per room (b) Thousands of Jews would die in the Ghettos B. Extraordinary Pacification 1. Einsatzgruppen a) Troops followed into Poland and murder the Polish intelligentsia and all of their leaders b) Murdered Polish Jews as well VI. The T4 Program. (1939-40) A. Eugenics Movement 1. Popular movement amongst scientists and doctors 2. Good breeding and sterilization of threats to the German people a) Sterilizing Jews and mental patients 3. Hygiene and healthy breeding B. Life unworthy of life 1. Better to kill people because C. Killing Centers 1. First Nazi Usage of the Gas chamber 2. Carbon Monoxide gas a) Put in a truck and drive around pumping carbon monoxide gas b) Over 200K were forcibly gassed and sterilized in the Eugenics movement 3. Helped to disvalue human life a) Desensitized the German people to killing Jews b) “Dress rehearsal for the Final Solution” (1) Radicalization of Nazi policy VII. Operation Barbarossa and the Beginning of Genocide. (1941-42) A. “War of Annihilation” 1. Lebensraum - Lining Space 2. Commissar Order, June 1941 a) SS given impunity to kill anyone they perceived as a threat b) Would have pogroms (1) Murders spread to women, and children and then liquidations B. Einsatzgruppen Murders (Mid Late 1941) 1. Pogroms 2. Mass-Shootings a) Babi Yar 29-30 sept 1941 near Kiev (1) 300k victims murdered (2) Jews, Gypsies and Ukrainian Nationalists (3) Victims would be taken to remote Locations 3. We know a lot about this because a) They Germans documented all of the killings (1) Separation by age, sex and their location (2) Photographs of these murders were taken by people who came to watch (a) People would take pictures of them and send them to their families (b) Much of the killing was done up close i) Shootings account for over 1 Million Ho
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