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18 Cold War.docx

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McGill University
HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Tuesday, April 3 The Cold War What challenges did Europe face during the Cold War? By the time Germany surrendered, the read army occupied eastern Europe. But formal control and the fate of Germany still have to be decided - Potsdam conference. I. Life after Another World War A. Conferences, agreements and organizations 1. Potsdam conference (July 1945) a) USSR, UK, AND US made to make final decisions b) De-facto Soviet control of eastern Europe was reorganized c) Germany was allowed to remain unified in theory (1) But lost Austria and territories in Poland d) Reparations (1) USSR stated that Germany had to pay 10 million marks 2. United Nations (created 1945) a) Organization that would replaced the League of nations b) Global organization supposed to mediate international disputes c) Possessed the authority to send in peace keeping forces 3. NATO (created 1949) a) Directed against the threat of the soviet union and communism and created a unified front as well as a unified command structure in case of soviet aggression 4. Unofficial changes a) Rise of the US - front and centre in European history b) Play a central role in NATO and the cold war more generally B. Economic recovery, the rise of the welfare state and new governments 1. Ethnic nationals were deported to the country they should be living a) Germans in Poland get sent home (back to Germany) b) You also have many prisoners of war that must be shifted around c) 20 million people were on the move - displaced persons 2. Transit infrastructure had been heavily hit from the war 3. But surprisingly, the economy rebounded quickly - aided by a) Truman Doctrine (1) American policy as outlined by Truman that free peoples needed to be supported against the communist threat (2) Money goes to Greece and Turkey to defend communist threat b) Marshall Plan (1) Also against communist threat 4. Agriculture mechanization greatly increased at the time a) Consolidation of farm plots b) Fewer people fed a greater population than ever before 5. Baby Boom occurred in Europe a) Ramifications of this began to be felt 6. Rise of the welfare state a) Guarantee basic well being for all Tuesday, April 3 b) I.e UK: national health service, funds for the unemployed, retirement pensions, bank of England, public transportation and coal/steel industries all nationalized c) States spent more money than ever before to provide social services (1) I.e education was free or remained relatively low C. New lifestyles 1. Travel became even more frequent than we have seen before a) Speed and regularity of travel took off exponentially b) France and Britain collaborated to launch the supersonic jet (1) Technology deemed problematic later on c) 1981 high speed trains came up 2. American television shows were on in Europe 3. American fast food chains became rampant in Europe 4. Household telephones in the 1960s II. The Cold War Begins A. Historiography 1. Debates originally started on who started it? a) Western historians tended to blame aggressive socialist policies b) Vietnam war brought critiques of American imperialist tendencies - blame shifted 2. Revisionists tried to move the debate to focus on contextualizing both real events and the propagandistic campaigns going on either side B. Satellite States and the Drawing of the Iron Curtain 1. Term Iron curtain comes from a speech of Churchill a) New divide in the post world war world 2. Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia - Soviet Satellites a) Communists took over the economy and controlled the people b) Under practical, political, economic control of the USSR c) Relationship solidified in 1969 with the signing of the Warsaw Pact (1) Outlined political and military cooperation in the face of foreign threat (2) Should sound like the communist version of NATO d) Economies were highly inefficient and societies were plagued by housing crises e) As they launched 5 year plans the same problems we saw in the USSR were seen - matching reduction in consumer goods and violence erupted in the countryside (peasants resisted forced collectivization and agriculture) f) Yugoslavia resisted USSR (1) Able to retain a mixed (nor fully socialist) economy (a) Private sector allowed to coexist with state planning g) Tensions between western liberal democracy patterns and communist USSR (1) Ideological divide manifested in a terrifying way (a) Nuclear bombs were present on both sides C. The Berlin Airlift (July 1948-May 1949) - first sight of potential conflict Tuesday, April 3 a) The German Federal Republic (aka west Germany) (1) Occupied by Allies (2) Liberal democratic b) The German Democratic Republic (aka East Germany) (1) Occupied by Red Army (2) Comm
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