April 10 Hist 215
1/ Physical devastation
o Cities spared: Oxford, Prague, Paris – were not to be bombed/shelled
o Destroyed: Berlin and most other German cities, Warsaw, Budapest,
Countries most affected: Yugoslavia Ukraine/SU, Greece
2/ Continuing allied co-operation: the United Nations
o Tehran conferences, Dumbarton Conference
3/ Post-War Settlement: Potsdam, July 1945
o Status quo ante
Exceptions: Poland shifted to the West,
Baltic states, territories from Finland, Czechoslovakia and
Romania to SU
Germany divided into 4 occupation zones, with plans to de-
Nazify and reunite it
“Resettlement” of German population in Czechoslovakia,
4/ The refugee crisis and forced population movements
o “A continent of displaced persons” – Merriman
spring 1945: 20m on the move
o Continuity with wartime trends
Between them, Hitler and Stalin uprooted, transplanted,
expelled, deported and dispersed some 30 million people in
the years 1939-1943. With the retreat of the Axis armies, the
process was reversed. – Tony Judt, Postwar.
o Who were the refugees?
Ethnic Germans, Balts, Poles, Ukrainians, Cossacks, Hungarians,
etc escaping the Soviet army – had association with the Third
Reich and had reasons to fear the army.
Survivors of the Holocaust and concentration camps
o Who took care of them?
UNRRA, IRO, under newly establish UN. Last DP (displaced
persons) camp closes in 1957 in Bavaria.
o Population exchanges and transfers/resettlement: Turks from
Bulgaria to Turkey, ethnic Hungarians from Slovakia, etc
o The largest ethnic group affected: the removal/resettlement of ethnic
Sudeten Germans from Czechoslovakia – 3m
From Hungary – 620,000
From Romania – 786,000
From Yugoslavia – 500,000
From Poland – 6-7million
o Total: 13 million ethnic Germans refugees settled in West Germany