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Napoleon Impact on Europe
1) End of Holy Roman Empire – German states reduced from 300 to 40/
Confederation of the Rhine (15 German states)
2) Export of Code and other French revolutionary measures
3) Liberator or oppressor of national rights?
a. Reaction: rise of liberalism and national unification (Italian and
b. But also: anti-French and conservative nationalism
The Industrial Revolution, The Middle Classes and Liberalism
The paradoxes of the post-Napoleonic era
o Political restoration (end of revolution) against the backdrop of
o Early Industrial Revolution creates economic progress and the “social
1/ Overview: from Great Britain to the continent
o “Perfect sotmr” of conditions in England, end of 18th c
o by 1830s: Belgium, northern france, some german states
o by 1850s: northern Italy, more of german states, parts of Austria.
2/ demographic revolution
o steep population growth across Europe (merriman, p516, especially
GB, Northern France and Belgium)
o redistribution of population: migration to cities and growth of cities
Output of coal, lignite and pig iron to selected countries
Spain had no navigable rivers located close to resources, reluctant to support
In the middle class(es)
1/ the bourgeois century
2/ the persistence of the od regime
3/ how to define the middle class(es)?
4/ the middle class in European comparative perspective