HIST 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Antisemitism, Totalitarianism, Spanish Civil War

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WorldWar2Engagement(S) 12:59
Question of Violence- WW2- attains civilians to a degree that hadn’t been
accounted for previous 2 years
Pre-modern: detained civilians a lot
Modern warfare: Developed since 1650s- progressively started developing
some sort of rules- considered less normal about civilians being detained.
-Civilians hurt during warfare- beginning of 20th century- illegal- war crimes
tribunal.
WW2: Civilians hurt the most- type of warfare practiced like bombing cities
hurts civilians- other practices particularly horrific.
Number of terms we now use: Genocide, try to illuminate a specific group
for it’s ethnic origins or religious origins- related to what the Nazis tried to
do with the conscious organized extermination of jews.
-Specificity of the aspects- move notion of war times to crimes against
humanity- crime considered worse thanwar crime, goes to a different scale
of measure- not even breaking the laws of war, but practicing something
beyond legal norms.
-Why so much violence?
3 possible answers:
1) Sociological answer: during the inter-war before WW2, rise of the
efficient, modern state.- notion of the modern state as we even know it
today- type of state of 20th century very different- pervasive, penetrates
deep in society.
-Interested in all of the aspects of your life as individuals- to control you to
maintain public order, to provide services to us, know better our needs- us
individuals- transformation of the state from being just territorial to being
human-oriented- biopolitical- interested in controlling people.
-Interwar develops more and goes into action
WW2- technology of governing that had progressively developed were put to
another use.
-Identity cards existed before, but know they were used differently
-Detainment centers transformed into concentration then extermination
-Bureaucratic machine and efficiency amazing- used for another purpose.
-Techniques at the beginning used for, interwar- used for limited cases:
identity cards were used right after WW1, introduced to control the alien
population- fear that people from beligerant country would cause problems.
-immigrants- controlling immigrant populations or refugees.
Exception becomes the rule progressively: what is the state of exception-
practicing something becomes the norm of how we govern.
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-Specificity of Europe: governing by the state of exception.*******
2)Ideological aspect: Rise of ideologies of that period that promote the
notion of the birth of the new man- reaction to crisis after WW1- the new
man that has to be born- understood in a very sanitized, medicalized
-Medicalized view of individuals- in terms of health and sick bodys- need to
cure them- seeing people that way
-Seeing society in that way- being a sick collective body, needing curing by
illuminating the sick parts of the body
-Medacalized view end of 19th/beg.20th- influential in inter-war: new man
emerged through a sort of medacilized ugenes approach: illuminating the
sick bodies- use of Darwin in the sense of social evolutionism.
Nazim: take it to the upmost level- 1930s: things that shock us today,
propaganda posters of illuminating people with disabilities- not shocking at
the time- people believed in ugeneics- having a better society, progressively
curing the sick body of society by eliminating the people.
3) Anthropological/psychological: how come everyday normal individuals
come to do horrific things- neighbros come out and denounce their
neighbors- how does this happen.
-normal people who were passive- german anthropologist: notion of violence
and self-constraint- if European civilization had been built on the idea of
making people self-constraining/abiding social norms and rules- success of
formation of obiding state- having a civilized society with rules
-Elias: violent process- makes us internalize the violence- once norms
collapse and the system collapses- all the violence is unleashed on the
personal level- normal people become somebody completely
different.**********
Why Germany?
-Finally because Germany was the most advanced nation state in terms of
European nation state of the time- most advanced techniques, best
universities, the most dominant in terms of scientific accomplishments-
moved further forward in terms of medicilaization, best welfare state- highly
respected for it’s respect of law and order.- law obiding, fascination wit hthe
law abiding citizens.
-If you are the perfect, well trained and low abiding citizen- what if law says
to denounce jews because they are bad for society- this may work.
-Valid lessons- keep certain reflexity in respect to regulations and laws.
-Trends: deals with violent aspect- has to do with society, importance of
visual culture- limits of perversion.
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-Engagements: How the history of resistance movements, personal
engagements of ww1 rewritten- always constant rewriting of history.
Picture: writing the history of engagement- picture used right after WW2 in
order to write a certain type of history of ww2 from the allies side.
History was the bad people/good people- the people who collaborating with
Nazis and always resistance from the beginning- clear cut divide
-Most people resisted- historians know this was not true- most countries
showed that resistance just like active collaboration was minority counts.
-Picture from august 26- day of liberation of paris: local resistence plus
American supported free france troops had come from Africa, and moved up
the ranks from paris- they come in.
-Leaders of part of resistence: Jacques- a general that became PM of france
later, presented walking down the champs elysees- main avenue of paris.
-Parade kind of form- solid and well organized
-Picture used to write the vision of French people having resisted-
unamisouly being behind the general.
-Not just had been liberated by allie troops from the outside- interior
resistence and participation
-This looks very organized but it wasn’t- very chaotic day- german troops
still in the city/ still fighting- both had arrived- not planning on parading but
all the people had come in the streets and forced them to move- and the
walking began/people follow him- becomes parade.
-The way it was presented: the allies used the picture because it showed a
certain picture of france- communist resistance not there- not important in
france
-Show a certain image of france that allie force was good too- most of the
soldiers with the division that liberated france- started in 1943- had colonial
troops in it, most free French army was of north African/African origin- the
americans had asked the French to move the north Africa out of the division
when they were going to france because they were afraid that the presence
of colonial soldiers would scare the white civilians and make them less
favourable to the allie troops- the division that showed up in france had no
colonial troops
pIcture truncated- cut: sergent duckson- on the side- African from Senegal:
interesting story- he gets there because he is running a resistance
movement in august in paris- the lion of northern paris for his participation.
-Pushed out of the parade during that moment- he is interesting in terms of
how people commit- many commited to resistence early on but not
everybody started immediately or out of some sort of commitment like
Christian catholic
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