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HIST 219 (35)
Dan Heller (35)


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HIST 219
Dan Heller

HIST 219: History of Jews Lecture 3: 11 September 2013 Jews Under Islam • Judeo-Christian values – opposite is Eastern Religions, Islam o Became popular in the 80s, conservatives invoke Judeo-Christian values o Post-9/11 – term meaning has changed o In the past, Jews would have said they have far more in common with Islamic  Ideas, styles, tastes o Jews living under Islam benefitted from them Zones of Intersection Between Jews & Islams: 1. Theological 2. Economic – how did Jews interact with Muslim neighbors economically? 3. Cultural 4. Political I. The Rise of Islam • Muhammad (570-623 CE); Quran; dhimmi; jizya; caliph; caliphate o Shephard from the town of Mecca o Most people in Mecca are polytheists o Begins having prophetic visions from God – tells Muhammad that the Arab tribes around him that are polytheists or pagans must become monotheists o Begins to spread the message around 610 CE – claims that he is like Jesus/Moses in that they are sent from God to reform o Islam is superior to J/C because he believes it restores the original monotheism practiced by Abraham o Encounters fierce opposition – flees to Medina o Wins favor by Bedouin people o By early 8 century, Islamic rulers had taken hold of Middle East, North Africa, SW Europe 1. Theological • The Quran says Muhammad killing/enslaving Jewish women & children • By 8 century, Islamic leaders don’t feel Jewish people are threat. Feel that Christians are. i. Jews numeric insignificance in the Arabian peninsula ii. Theological similarity btwn Jews/Islam – Christianity creates icons of saints – Muslims felt this wasn’t monotheism. • Dhimmi – protected people; if the Jews and Christians followed Islam, they would be protected • Pact of Umar – feel that Jews/Christians asserting authority, do not want them to support each other, fear that they are taking over o Does not legislate economic interactions or movement o Jizya – a tax that J/C have to pay; demonstrate servitude, shame J/C 2. Economic • Geonim; responsa • Jewish Communal Leadership under Abasid Caliphate – Learning Academy “Yeshiva” in Palestine, “Yeshivot” in Iraq • Jews weren’t working exclusively with other Jews
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