Originated in med era, usually more tribal groupings. Western europe : poles, czechs, slovaks, sorbs. Southern europe: slovenes, croats, serbs, bulgars (this group grows to include montenegro, bosnia, etc) Germanic (germans--v widely dispersed in central europe, swedes) Southern europe distinct groups: albanians, greeks, turks. Bulgarian empire originally formed by turkic people, but culturally slavic. Magyar (hungarian) kingdom, came from central asia in one of the last invasions from the east. Pope in rome vs patriarch in istanbul. Important politically bc to be king, had to have crown blessed by one of these figures. Your ally would likely give you aid etc. Drang nach osten aka move to the east, migration pattern. 1102 union of croat and hungarian crowns. Turks defeat serb king, est rule over balkan peninsula. Eventually get to constantinople, roman emp over. Czechia growing, prague capital of hre, extends as far north as berlin. Austro-hungarian empire acquires bohemian and magyar crowns thru vote, but later becomes hereditary monarchy.