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Beginning of End of Cold war in Europe.docx

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McGill University
HIST 304
Charlie Sharpe

Beginning of End of Cold war in Europe NATO, SS-20, Helmut Schmidt, SALT I/SALT II, CSCE, Helsinki, John Paul II, Gdansk, Lech Walesa, Solidarity, Wojciech Jaruzelski, Cardinal Wyszynski, Erich Honecker, Helmut Kohl, Franz Josef Strauss, Brezhnev, lurii Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko, Pershing II, Cruise Missile Vladimir Vysotsky – Soviet singer/songwriter/poet/actor Final = April 17 6pm 3 sections  12 IDs (choose only three)  3 Essay Questions (choose 1) based on regions = China, Germany and Egypt  3 Essay Questions (choose 1) o role of nuclear weapons o tensions between ideology and security o relationship between leadership and structure/environment East Asia – 1979 a critical year. China and US relations. Mid East – 1979 -83. Rise of Islamism, Iranian revolutions and soviet war in Afghanistan. 1981 – Sadat assassinated in Egypt. 1983 first suicide attacks on western targets. NATO-Double Track Decision and Afghanistan 1979  Dec 12 1979 members of western alliance proposed arms limitation alliance with soviets. If Moscow refused, NATO would station more IBMs aimed toward eastern Europe  1976 soviets deploying intermediate range missiles  1977 Schmidt expressing concerns  soviets did not violate SALT I of 1972 or ongoing SALT II agreements – intermediate range missiles did violate spirit of agreements.  After US and SU signed SALT II, NATO decided to address missile threats.  Bring soviet union to the negotiating table for this issue  Negotiate both countries undergo arms limitations or else US would retaliate on a big level  Soviets gain equal status in cold war conflict, Soviets interpreted as collapse in western capitalism o Eastern oil crisis also good for soviets o Able to better make domestic demands  Soviet government embraced high oil prices indefinitely  Believed they were getting the upper hand, failed to take NATthdouble-track seriously.  40 division of soviet army to Afghanistan. December 25 1979. o Did not sit well in the west. Blatant, arrogant slap in the face o Collapse of détente. o Carter withdraws SALT II – treaty not ratified Olympic Games 1980  1974 Olympic committee had to choose between LA and Moscow  Soviets had applied at height of détente, hoped to paint SU as a peace loving country nd  Brezhnev opened 22 Olympic Games in Moscow on July 19 1980.  Brezhnev not all that intelligent?  War in Afghanistan just before games was disastrous  Americans targets Olympic Games o Carter suggests Games to be moved, delayed or cancelled if Soviet troops not withdrawn from Afghanistan (refused to withdraw)  March 21 1980 Carter announces US to Boycott 1980 Olympic Games  64 Western nations boycott the Olympic Games  Vladimir Vysotsky dies July 1980 – SU goes into state of mourning in the middle of the Olympic Games o Number of events cancelled o essentially a mass public funeral  1984 soviet states boycotted LA games Poland 1980-1  Polish unrest in late 1970s  John Paul II – very important spiritual leader, undermined authority of communist party in Poland  Poled waiting summer 1980 for government to take a misstep.  Polish prime minister boycotted Olympic ceremonies  1980 polish pole vault jumper beat out soviet athlete. Lead to soviet-polish diplomatic dispute. Meat prices raised.  Workers in Gdansk, Lech Walesa and another worker had been establishing workers unions outside of actual official union which had been controlled by communists. Strike – demand for two workers to be rehired.  Catholic church mediated between gov and striking workers, polish government had to accept free union movement and release all captured workers.  First major victory for emerging civil society movement in e. Europe.  mid-sept 1980 unified free union for all of Poland called Solidarity. Labor Union/Political party lead by Walesa.
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