HIST 304 Lecture Notes - Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Walter Ulbricht, Godesburg

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
McGill University
HIST 304
of 4
German-German rapprochement
Terms: Hallstein Doctrine, Godesberg Program, Ostpolitik, Le Duc Tho,
Walter Ulbricht, Leonid Brezhnev, Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Erich
Honecker, Willy Brandt, Günther Guillaume, Helmut Schmidt, Gamal
Abdel Nasser
June 1953 east Germany experienced an uprising. First to
experience unrest of all the eastern countries.
Khrushchev over Berlin became Berlin Wall, tank confrontation and
Checkpoint Charlie.
Berlin and Germany signified presence of Cold War
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic
Republic (GDR).
W. Germany became model economic state “economic
E> Germany a Stalinist state, radical policies, floundering
economy threatened with imminent collapse. Dependent on
soviet aid. Leaders insisted on soviet aid in order to become
model socialist state. No amount of aid could produce respect
for the administration
Refugees pouring from E. to W. Germany
E. German state battled internal rest than was only put
dowqn with force
W. and E. Germany Siamese twins.
‟45-‟51 both were trying to achieve sovereignty – W.
Germany becomes NATO member and E. Germany signs onto
Warsaw pact in ‟55-„56
Confrontation (1955-61)
Two major political parties
o West German Government (Christian Democratic Union)
Hallstein Doctrine: only one state, FRG, GDR not
a state or country. Reinforced policy refused to
have diplomatic relations with any country that
DID recognize it. Would even sever relations with
previous allies. Provided economic aid to
developing countries, used to prevent others from
recognizing E. Germany. 1960s most of
developing world recognized FRG, not GDR
Followed a policy of firm alignment of an
integration with the western world
German prisoners of war incarcerated in Moscow.
Adenauer ok with unity but on his own terms.
Schemes to show that unity was possible, but
proposals always had a catch so that east German
states and soviet union would reject them.
Wanted free elections supervised by UN.
o West German Opposition Social Democratic
Reunification through Neutralization of Germany
in the Cold War
1966 coalition with conservative party. SPD
promoted German unity through neutrality
opposed to western unification.
o East Germany believed unification would occur after
capitalist collapse in W. Germany. Believed it would
become a socialist state.
o Two-state theory. W. Germany emerged out of fascism?
E. Germany „embraced‟ socialism.
Rapprochement, 1961-early 1970s
Why rapprochement?
o Changes in W. Germany: Hollstein doc lost its support.
Humanitarian implications changed significantly after
berlin wall construction. E. Germany would not issue
visas. Berliners missing their family were critical of
Hallstein doc.
o W. Germany trying to make amends for nazi past had
been paying Israel to make up for past mistakes.
Attempts to normalize relations. E. Germany did not
accept responsibility for any German crimes against
Israeli people. Nasser had already undermined Hallstein
doctrine when trying to make relations with both
Germanies. Hallsteing doc irrelevant in mid east.
o Romania 1963 tries to separate from Moscow.
Bucharest tried to reach out to W. Germany, and later
Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. E. Germany
reached out to them economically.
Abandoned non-recognition in early 1960s. political challenge
in domestic german politics, 1959 social democratic party of
Germany met for annual convention, new generation of social
democratic leaders emerging, adoption of the godesburg
program, fundamentally changed social democrats election
chances. Removed all traces of Marxism from platform and
embraced market economy. Social democrats now voiced
commitment of Germany into western alliance. Social
democrats called for relaxation of cold war tensions, started
preaching détente before man western powers. „winds of
change‟. Called for German reunification on the basis of
democratic process, implicit rejection of E. German regime
but also commitment to unification on liberal democratic
terms defined by the west.
o Social democratic party now ready to take on Christian
democratic union.
o Relaxation of two German states.
o Federal democratic party dec 1966 fail when liberals
pull out after dispute.
o Liberals were the power broker.
Willy Brandt (west German politicia) 1913
o Raised by mother‟s stepfather
o Joined German socialist youth association
o Fled to Norway during Nazi, striped of german
citizenship, arrested in Norway but released and took
refuge in Norwegian
o Mayor of west berlin.
o 1966 foreign minister of Germany , first non-
conservative chancellor of Germany after 1969
o two German states, one German nation
developments in E. Germany. Berlin wall seemed a confession
of losing.
1969 brandt‟s ostpolitik – did not immediately set out to
pursue relationship with E. Germany went for soviet union
and Poland first
Warsaw treaty, 7 dec 1970
o Article 1: recognition of existing borders
o Article 2: maintenance of peace
o Article 3: normalization of bilateral relations
Quadtipartite agreement (Four Power Agreement), sept 3
o SU, US, GB and France on final status of Berlin
German-German agreements (1971-2)
o Transit and postal agreement regulated exchange of
letters and parcels as well as transit from west
Germany through easy Germany to west berlin.
o Basic treaty, Dec 21 1972
Article 1 good neighbor policy
Article 2 recognition of basic ideas of united
Article 3 renunciation of force in mutual
Article 4 non-representation principle

Document Summary

Terms: hallstein doctrine, godesberg program, ostpolitik, le duc tho, Walter ulbricht, leonid brezhnev, kurt georg kiesinger, erich. Honecker, willy brandt, g nther guillaume, helmut schmidt, gamal. June 1953 east germany experienced an uprising. First to experience unrest of all the eastern countries. Khrushchev over berlin became berlin wall, tank confrontation and. Berlin and germany signified presence of cold war. Federal republic of germany (frg) and the german democratic. W. germany became model economic state economic miracle . E> germany a stalinist state, radical policies, floundering economy threatened with imminent collapse. Leaders insisted on soviet aid in order to become model socialist state. No amount of aid could produce respect for the administration. Refugees pouring from e. to w. germany. E. german state battled internal rest than was only put dowqn with force. W. and e. germany siamese twins. 45- 51 both were trying to achieve sovereignty w. Germany becomes nato member and e. germany signs onto.