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Human Rights& Vatican.docx

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HIST 304
Charlie Sharpe

Human Rights & Vatican Terms: CSCE (Conference for security and cooperation in Europe), Helsinki, Geneva, EEC (EU), Amnesty International, Brandt, Ostpolitik, Jackson-Vanik, Andrei Sakharov, Elena Bonner, Gorki (Nishni Nocgorod), Humanae Vitae, Samizdat Liberature, Stafan Cardinal Wyszynsjki, Charter 77, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul II, Cracow, Lech Walesa, Gdansk, Encyclical Natural Law – derived from nature or reason, not from law Human Rights – before or after the French revolution?  Promoted by Christian advocates.  Modern regime not entirely secular  Roosevelt advisors was opposed to the creation of an international human rights regime. Lenin and Stalin attack the Russian Orthodox Church  1931 demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Savoir in Moscow  orthodox church in no position to facilitate resistance  resistance was against historical tradition of submission to state authority Protestant churches  Evangelical Lutheran church of Latvia  Baltic states had huge Lutheran populations (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)  Lutheran church in E. Germany and Czechoslovakia – faired better, not considered a threat and able to make deals wit communist regimes to stay out of politics. o Would ultimately play important roles in 1980s, environmental movements. Catholic church  Unlike other major churches in socialist world, had international hierarchy.  Most states accepted it in international law and did not intervene in church affairs  Leader, pope, lived outside of socialist world  Croatia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania (ethnic Germans and Romanians), Hungary (3/4), Czechoslovakia all contained catholic populations  Largest community in Poland, over 90% practicing. Catholic church has spent a lot of time unifying the country and protecting it against foreign occupations  3 polish partitions – o (E = Russia, W = Prussia)  religious-based resistance caused communist collapse in Poland Vatican in world affairs  Until 1860s powerful state with landholdings in Italy  United Italy stripped the catholic church of Italian landholdings and turned them over to the state  Left with “Vatican City”  Pius XXII failed to take action against the Nazis for crimes against humanity  Efforts to attempt to modernize, “second vatican council” liturgy changed from latin to vernacular  Pope john XXIII lead, o tried to work with Khrushchev, o famous encyclical “peace in the world” o advocated for human rights and democracy  Paul VI o Continued opening Vatican to the world o First pope in history to visit 5 continents „pilgrim pope‟ o Establish relations with communist regimes o Various communist regimes continued to harass and imprison bishops, priests and activist laymen  August 25 1978 o Albino luciato = John Paul I o Found dead sitting up in bed, died of heart attack, one of shortest sitting popes in history o Conflict broke out between cardinals in Sistine chapel between two groups each supporting different Italian candidates o Compromise candidate  oct 6 1978
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