Lecture 9: Suez, Poland, Hungary, 1956 4/17/2013 8:56:00 PM
Key words: Mosaddeq, ottoman, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Baa’th, Arafat,
Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov, Kaganovich, Ràkosi, Malenkov, Kàdàr, Suez,
CENTO, Saddam Hussein,
1945, 1968, 1989 important years within the cold war
1956 also a very crucial year
number of cold war subplots converged and influenced each other
before separating again
triple crises in fall 1956, Poland/Hungary/Suez
Crucial route through to India, provided Great Britain with speedy
access to their colonies
1908 – oil discovered in Persia by Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
British and Russians occupied Iran during WWII. 1953 Americans
overthrow Iranian president.
Khrushchev tried to expand soviet influence into the region
Nationalist movement celebrating Arabic culture.
Unity with the Arabs in the Levant – Arab Nationalism.
Emerged during waning years of Ottoman Empire. When Ottoman
Empire ended, quasi-independent nations of League of Nations
Mandate… colonized. European countries take control of states
deemed unprepared for independence. Britain – Iran and Syria,
French – Lebanon and Jordan.
Anti-colonial and anti-imperial movement. Zionists also enraged
entire Arab community.
Truman recognized Israel which intensified Arab dislike of America.
AN much more than dislike of Europe and America – celebration of
Arab community. Unity, economic and political modernization.
Illiberal, tribal, familial (allegiance to family), authoritarianism.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
– patriot, loved his country, Arab nationalist. Hated Egyptian
monarchy. Egyptian monarchy abetted British imperialism. Arab-Israeli War – Nasser joins with Arabs and Palestinians.
Returns to Egypt to attempt to attain power by overthrowing
monarchy, getting rid of Britain and reclaiming Egyptian
Coup d’etat against Egyptian monarchy in 1952
June 1953 egyptian republic
Committee, leader Nasser, controlled Egypt.
Baghdad pact (?)
Baa’th party in Iraq and some secular Palestinian parties aligned
with Nasser. Instituted universal schooling, took on infrastructure
projects, brought electricity. Opposition to Baghdad pact, lauched
attacks on turkey for joining NATO, denounced monarchies in Iraq
and Iran, spoke against Pakistan (join Southeast Asian Treaty
Decided to buy weapons, US had placed arms embargo on region in
order to protect Israel. Chinese and Soviets declined to help Nasser
so as not to agitate relations with US. Russians referred Nasser to
1954 failed assassination by Muslim Brotherhood provided Nasser
opportunity to crack down on his opponents. President arrested and
Nasser becomes president of Egypt.
mid-50s, hoping to build electrical power plant on the Nile
World Bank supposed to finance project but they pulled out when
he made his arms deal with the Czechs.
Late July 1956, if the west were not willing to finance power plant
then Egypt would raise the money himself by nationalizing the Suez
canal. All fees by ships passing through waterway would go to
British and French who owned the canal were not down. Suspected
that US would never agree to any intervention in the region and
therefore didn’t let them in on the plan.
Proposed a deal with Israelis, provided weapons in exchange with
help against Nasser. Were already worried about Arafat. Planned for
British and French to reappear as mediators once Israel managed to
attack. Asked Israelis to withdraw within 10 miles of the canal, would
require Egyptians to withdraw a 100 mile radius.
British ad French commenced air assault on Sinai region. If Nasser
wouldn’t retreat they wanted him out.
November 4 Bri