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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Suez Poland Hungary 1965.docx

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HIST 304
Charlie Sharpe

Lecture 9: Suez, Poland, Hungary, 1956 4/17/2013 8:56:00 PM Key words: Mosaddeq, ottoman, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Baa’th, Arafat, Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Molotov, Kaganovich, Ràkosi, Malenkov, Kàdàr, Suez, CENTO, Saddam Hussein, 1945, 1968, 1989  important years within the cold war 1956 also a very crucial year  number of cold war subplots converged and influenced each other before separating again  triple crises in fall 1956, Poland/Hungary/Suez Suez canal  Crucial route through to India, provided Great Britain with speedy access to their colonies  1908 – oil discovered in Persia by Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. British and Russians occupied Iran during WWII. 1953 Americans overthrow Iranian president.  Khrushchev tried to expand soviet influence into the region whenever possible. Arab Nationalism  Nationalist movement celebrating Arabic culture.  Unity with the Arabs in the Levant – Arab Nationalism.  Emerged during waning years of Ottoman Empire. When Ottoman Empire ended, quasi-independent nations of League of Nations Mandate… colonized. European countries take control of states deemed unprepared for independence. Britain – Iran and Syria, French – Lebanon and Jordan.  Anti-colonial and anti-imperial movement. Zionists also enraged entire Arab community.  Truman recognized Israel which intensified Arab dislike of America.  AN much more than dislike of Europe and America – celebration of Arab community. Unity, economic and political modernization.  Illiberal, tribal, familial (allegiance to family), authoritarianism. Gamal Abdel Nasser  – patriot, loved his country, Arab nationalist. Hated Egyptian monarchy. Egyptian monarchy abetted British imperialism.  Arab-Israeli War – Nasser joins with Arabs and Palestinians.  Returns to Egypt to attempt to attain power by overthrowing monarchy, getting rid of Britain and reclaiming Egyptian sovereignty  Coup d’etat against Egyptian monarchy in 1952  June 1953 egyptian republic  Committee, leader Nasser, controlled Egypt.  Baghdad pact (?)  Baa’th party in Iraq and some secular Palestinian parties aligned with Nasser. Instituted universal schooling, took on infrastructure projects, brought electricity. Opposition to Baghdad pact, lauched attacks on turkey for joining NATO, denounced monarchies in Iraq and Iran, spoke against Pakistan (join Southeast Asian Treaty Organization)  Decided to buy weapons, US had placed arms embargo on region in order to protect Israel. Chinese and Soviets declined to help Nasser so as not to agitate relations with US. Russians referred Nasser to Czechoslovakia.  1954 failed assassination by Muslim Brotherhood provided Nasser opportunity to crack down on his opponents. President arrested and Nasser becomes president of Egypt. Suez Crisis  mid-50s, hoping to build electrical power plant on the Nile  World Bank supposed to finance project but they pulled out when he made his arms deal with the Czechs.  Late July 1956, if the west were not willing to finance power plant then Egypt would raise the money himself by nationalizing the Suez canal. All fees by ships passing through waterway would go to Egyptian state.  British and French who owned the canal were not down. Suspected that US would never agree to any intervention in the region and therefore didn’t let them in on the plan.  Proposed a deal with Israelis, provided weapons in exchange with help against Nasser. Were already worried about Arafat. Planned for British and French to reappear as mediators once Israel managed to attack.  Asked Israelis to withdraw within 10 miles of the canal, would require Egyptians to withdraw a 100 mile radius.  British ad French commenced air assault on Sinai region. If Nasser wouldn’t retreat they wanted him out.  November 4 Bri
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