Lecture 9: The Restoration

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11 Apr 2012

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Lecture 9: The Restoration
Professor Brian Cowan
Date: Sept 23, 2011
- begin with Restoration
- sets conditions under which later 18th c.
-1660 nobody knew what would happen with restored monarchy
- Charles had Declaration of Greta: he assured people they would have liberty of con-
science (Protestants are okay) and no revenge would take place
- generated a lot of popular support after 11 years exile
- seemed like Charles could offer generous settlement for everyone
- seemed to be a little too moderate and forgiving according to the royalist supporters;
they wanted some revenge
- he needed to keep the royalists happy, and to not alienate those subjects
- difficult balancing act
- what did the restoration restore? what came back?
- attempt to bring the state of the nation to the status quo balance of the way things
were before the civil wars
- king would call new Parliament and rule in a Parliamentary way
- Anglican uniformity (Royalists liked this) was a big wish for some people; religion was
the big problem
- Charles seemed to be a very liberal religious king, and this ticked some people off
- Act of Uniformity: key pillar of legislation; everyone had to conform to Episcopal church
of England; Dissenters would be excluded from the religious majority and their religion
would be illegal
- punishment, draconian measures, passed in the early years of Charles' reign
- Clerendin Code: named after Earl of Clerendin and orchestrated Charle's return; diffi-
cult management of royalist friends meant that Clerendin ushered in some measures
that were very extreme
- these acts are now known as the Clerendin Code
- December 1661 Corporation Act: if you did not swear allegiance to the Crown, take
Anglican sacraments, you could not take part in town government
- May 1662 Quaker Act: singling out of the Quakers (they thought they might have a plot
against the king); fear of plotting and subversion of religious dissenters; applied to peo-
ple who refused to take an oath, or five or more Quakers met in a meeting
- 1662 Conventicle Act: extended provisions of Quaker Act to all religious dissenters; in-
dependent religious worship was a crime (fear of a sedicious meeting); expelled minis-
ters who held dissenter beliefs (lost livings, source of revenue)
- 1665 Five Mile Act: ministers who refused to take provisions were not allowed within
five miles of former parish; to stop towns from rallying around former preacher
- point of measures was to stamp out dissent
- they failed
- major problem of long 18th c was how to deal with religious dissent
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- especially during Restoration era, when there were bad punishments, what do you do
to truly religious people who are just in the wrong type of Protestant religion
- what to do with those who signed death warrant of Charles I
- what to do with Parliamentary supporters
- indemnity for most (let them live); but death sentence passed on regicides
- a lot of people afraid of being caught in these measures (John Milton had written trea-
tises justifying regicide, but escaped the death sentence)
- people ran for it; off to America or Dutch Republic; New Haven a haven for regicides
- Stuart agents would hunt people who went to Dutch Republic
- everyone who collaborated with the Republic regime were allowed to go about their
business in peace
- attempt to forget; forbidden to write about the past
- the use of old terms of abuse ("you bloody roundhead!!") were illegal
- there was a lot of euphoria and optimism: the return of the king was a good thing
- the government had just fallen apart; longing for a stable government again
- Puritan regime made Christmas illegal; King brought back Christmas!
- Charles 30 years old when he returned to London; much of his adolescence had been
spent watching civil war unfold
- he was tall and athletic, and loved the public eye; he made himself accessible to hear
his subject's problems
- hated paperwork; he tried to delegate responsibilites
- broad interests: theatre, art, fashion (wearing wigs, they were suddenly all the rage;
three piece suits)
- he fancied himself a patron of science: 1660 Royal Society
- he fathered 14 bastards; all appetites are free and God would never damn a man for
indulging in a little pleasure
- jovial and fun-loving monarch; he revelled in body talk and crude humour
- Restoration's tone was involved with body humour; you wouldn't be thrown out of court
if you told a dirty joke or put on a lewd play
- also had reserve behind veneer; naturally suspicious of everyone around him
- privy game of courtiers; disposed of them as he needed to
- Marquis of Halifax commented that he used his courtiers and lovers, but never loved
- early 1670s cast away Earl of Dandy as Prime Minister; prudent political move
- most important thing to do was to get married
- May 1662 married Katarina la Granza: Portuguese; received Bombay, Tangiers, and a
bunch of money as part of the dowry
- Barbara Palmer, mistress was now Lady Castlemagne
- many months after the marriage they realized that Katarina could not conceive; she
had failed in her duty
- crisis that exists for the next 20 years
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