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Lecture 2- The Edwardian Age.docx

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McGill University
HIST 386
Brian Lewis

Lecture 2: The Edwardian Age Queen Victoria 1837-1901 Edward VII 1901-10 George V 1910-1936 Economy world's only super power largest navy quarter of the world's population largest merchant navy more than all the other countries combined city of London (financial district) great financial centre of the world world economy based on the pound sterling organized around free trade and int'l division of labour different from rival economies less than 10% of labour force engaged in agriculture and fisheries during eco. downturn that hit agri. badly, large amount of land went out of use in Britain population booming better fed on the eve of WWI than it had been back in 1870 Great Depression meant fall in grain prices--> cheaper bread opening up of American prairies through railways and steamship that allowed this foreign grain could undercut the price of Br. grainy 3/4 of pop. being fed by foreign grain, so free trade is good means it could concentrate on manufactured goods importing raw materials and goods BUT England in relative decline as other countries begin to grow more rapidly 1880 Br. has 23% of world's manufacturing output by 1919, below 14% US and Ger. were catching up and becoming stronger industrial powers cuts into Br. eco. supremacy deflationary years of Great Depression gave people more spending power stimulated consumer boom at end of 19thC + more leisure time department stores, brand names telephone, elevator, automobile, cinema, bicycle, gas stove, Daily Mail newspaper expansion of employment in the tertiary sector white collar in industry and services professional jobs bureaucratic jobs in the expansion of various government and state Urbanization by 1914, more than 3/4 in large towns and cities highest urbanized pop. in the world London biggest city in the world 20% of the pop. of Eng. and Wales Glasgow is second biggest central business, shopping and entertainment district surrounded by working class housing slum housing or row housing extensive suburbs hard to keep up with urban development overcrowding and appalling living conditions urban contrasts at most extreme in London "this great foul city" core of London divided into West and East end West: consu
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