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Lecture 3

387 - Week 3 – Lecture 1 - Crises .docx

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HIST 387
Peter Hoffmann

Week 3 – Lecture 1 History 387 - The First World War Crises   th Paper – 2 pages, double spaced = announced on 17 October, due the Monday night by email, 12 pt. double spaced  notes of British Cabinet Defence Meeting online – positioning of British government - first Moroccan crisis - Bndkan crisis - 2 Moroccan crisis - Balkan War SirAlfred Beit, Sanjak of Novipazar, Aehrenthal, Izvolsky, Buchlau, Franz Conrad v. Hotzendorf, Agadar, Mogador, Wilberg, Warburg,Alfred v. Kinderlen-Wachter Contract – Germany and Russia = each will aid the other if they are attacked in Europe by a third power (e.g. Austria (likely for Russia) and France (likely for Germany)) - drafted and signed 24 July 1905 when Wilhelm II and Nicholas II had been cruising in their yachts on the Baltic Coast o Wilhelm wanted to secure friendship with all nations = would ‘talk big’but never engage in war  he was attempting to improve relations with Russia which had declined after the lapse of the Reinsurance Treaty in 1890 o The purpose of the treaty was defensive = both nations disclaimed any intention of attacking anyone = the French said it was against the Franco-Russian Convention but the Russians said how could this be unless that agreement was offensive in it’s nature (which had not been stipulated!) = document was proposed as a solution in the case of attack = sunshine fell on the signing  Wilhelm saw this as a sign of God/his grandfather’s approval as he wrote to Bulow - Wilhelm’s personality was very different to what historiography has suggested = focused on the idea that W should feel ‘guilt’for starting the War o This was not necessarily fairly apportioned blame = as demonstrated in Clarke’s ‘Sleepwalkers’ Bulow said that it was useless because if there war a war in which Russia would be attacked, it would be Britain vs. Russia and this would not happen in Europe = Treaty said in Europe but Britain wouldn’t attack in Europe, as shown by the Crimean War which even then had largely been a naval war - Bulow = subsequently resigned ▯ Wilhelm blamed Bulow for the German situation in Tangiers = ‘but Bulow I have not deserved that from you’ o Claimed Bulow was obliged to him = refused his resignation and claimed Bulow would be ‘eternally embarrassed’ Moroccan Crisis ___ had been dispatched to Tangiers to make demonstration against French penetration of Morocco against 1880 Treaty - international meeting was declared = Germany had interest in Moroccan resources = Conference from 16 January to April 1906 o became apparent that Bulow’s policy had failed = ulterior motive had been to show the Entente Cordiale was not cohesive --. French and English interests would be too divergent for cooperation  deal had been though to give France Morocco and Britain would obtain Egypt Personality of Wilhelm = very similar to the personality of Bulow  both intelligent men - inconsistent, lacked discipline, brilliant ideas which were rarely worked through didn’t like those who disagreed with him ▯surrounded by people who would not raise questions and agreed regardless o people would try to contravene him = chaotic government in Germany! Bulow = quick, elegant and sycophantic, modern and connected with modern society e.g. Wagner which Wilhelm liked  he published 4 volumes of memirs = published l
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