INTD 200 Lecture Notes - Commodification, Milkfish, Seagrass

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Rural Development and The Sustainable Livelihood
Approach 12/5/12 1:19 AM
Take home: 2 essays, one from McAllister, one from Allemand, each essay 3
pages double spaced.
Characteristics of a ‘Peasant’/Peasant Household
1. Dominant economic activity is smallholder farming (crops, livestock) !
can also be applied to fishers, and pastoralists
2. Access to land basis for their livelihood (tenure very important) !
property rights is really important
3. “One foot in the market, the other in subsistence”. Partial integration into
“imperfect markets”. The markets are not operating with fair competition.
4. Pluri-activity ! diversity of activities within and between households, cash
and in-kind income, farm, off-farm and non-farm income
in-kind income: what they produce for themselves
Farm income: anything that you grow on your land
Off-Farm income: income gained not from your land, but possibly
selling your labour; still has to do with farming but not on your land
Non-Farm income: things that have nothing to do with farming
(store, remittances, etc…)
5. Unit of production and consumption (the household is both a family and
enterprise)
what do you sell and what do you keep?
6. Family/household labour is defining economic characteristic (although
may hire or sell labour seasonally)
7. Access to financial capital and ‘capital’ equipment is often limited or
unreliable
tractors, agricultural inputs
credit/loans, middlemen, merchants, money lends,
8. Marginal/subordinate ! surplus production is extracted
prices they get at market is usually lower than the usual going
market price
9. Thick social networks (“Moral Economy”, James Scott)
Webs of mutual assistance as social safety net
Kinship and community networks
Labour exchange networks
Reciprocity and food sharing
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Patron-client relations
What is a Peasant?
“Peasants are households which derive their livelihoods mainly from
agriculture, utilize mainly family labour in farm production and are
characterised by partial engagement in input and output markets which are
often imperfect or incomplete”.
Economic Principles that govern Peasant Behaviour/Decisions
1. Efficiency
labour intensive/capital intensive
limited resources
substitute
trade off between different activities
comparative advantage
choices
2. Risk aversion/subsistence security vs. high productivity
risk management
more focus on subsistence than on high productivity
take calculated risks to improve their life in the future
3. Drudgery aversion/seasonal labour constraints
avoid certain task they don’t want to do
some seasons are more labour intensive than others
Development projects need to take into account the agricultural
season
4. Also – desire to improve well-being/next generation.
Investment in the next generation
Risk management
What is a Community?
Rural village/community is not homogenous, or uniform.
Households divided by social differences: class, wealth, ethnicity,
access to resources, land, political power, etc…
Demographic differences (dependency ration)
Different interests
Different assets
What is a Household?
Conventional Understanding: HH as a unit of decision making, co-residence,
shared food, shared resources.
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But:
1. Socially Divided: gender, age, etc… , influence, power, decision making,
resource access
gender roles
how food is distributed
who actually receives the money earned
2. Not necessarily “spatially” bound
Kinship/reciprocity bonds beyond “house”
Resource access beyond village (circular migration, international
remittances)
Could share food and resources with those outside the boundaries
of the physical house
People of the household could work in the city, so resources are not
actually from the community
Circular migration: seasonal migration
Household
“coalition of players committed by choice or custom to act as a unit with
respect to the rest of the world”
Livelihood
A livelihood comprises the assets, the activities, and the access to these
(mediated by social relations) that together determine the living gained by
the individual or household”
How people make a living
Can be viewed on different scales: household, individual, gender,
etc…
Assets: 5 Capitals
1. Natural Capital: land, forest, water, trees,
2. Physical Capital: roads, buildings, technologies, tractors, built materials
consumer goods: used for the consumers enjoyment
producer goods: to be reinvested in livelihood
3. Human Capital: knowledge, health, skills, education
4. Financial Capital: money, income, ability to access credit
5. Social Capital: social network, trusting networks, labour exchange,
patron-client
Access to Various “Capitals” Mediated Through:
1. Social Relations
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