INTD 200 Lecture Notes - Industrial Revolution, World Trade Organization, International Inequality

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Lecture 5: Colonialism and the History of
Development 12/16/12 9:22 AM
European Colonialism
General characteristics of pre-colonial societies
Range from small subsistence communities to hierarchical kingdoms
and states
Physical boundaries were not territorially based ! population
control was priority
Ruling people was more important than ruling land
Boundaries were not clearly defined, states boundaries overlapped
Most boundaries today were created during the colonial time
Colonies of Settlement: the land was taken from the native people,
either by military, economic or legal power
o Canada
Colonies of Rule: the colonial administrators reorganized and
imposed their rule over the societies
Ideologies of Justification
Development modeled after industrial revolution
Socially engineer societies
Endpoint of industrialization ! helping them in the future
“White Man’s Burden”: responsibilities of the Europeans to “civilize”
these countries
o religion, government, creation of territories, reorganization of
social things
Impacts of Colonialism
Displacement, marginalization and psychological impact
Indirect Rule : local people/leaders were given privileges in the colonial state
to reinforce the colonial rule, usually used by British colonizers
Extraction ! labour, resources, cultural treasures
Appropriation of land for cash crops
Depriving people of their rights
Transformation of Local Agricultural Systems
Tradition to European farming systems ! cash crops, monoculture,
o Resulted in starvation sometimes
New conceptions of property and land ownership
Social and ecological impacts
People considered not to be using the land productively ! still
happens today
Transformation/undermining of local industries
Indian Textile Industry: well established during pre-colonial times
o British imposed a huge tax and tariff on the textiles
o Allowed cotton to be imported tax free
o British textile industry undermined Indian textile
o Supported British industrialization and halted Indian
o Intentional
Colonial division of Labour
Colonial powers extracted resources from colonies, used them for
production and sent them back to the colonies to buy
Extraction of natural resources
Un-equal exchange
Global Diaspora: slave trade, beginnings of people moving continents,
ongoing trend
Independence and Nationalist Movements
National Consciousness
o Given European education ! values of human rights and
justice, national sovereignty
o Why shouldn’t we have these rights?
o Framed in the European discourse
o Haiti ! ideas from the French Revolution
Thinkers and Intellectuals
o Educated in Europe
o Began to question colonialism
o Began writing books
o Think about the feeling Inferiority
o Many books written
o George Orwell- “Burma Years”
o Re-think Colonialism
o Recognition of these authorities
Anti-colonial Resistances
o Militarized
o Labour unrest
o Idealist
Decolonization and Development
Post WW2- US dominant power
Europe destroyed by WW2, gave a chance for colonies to kick
Europeans out
Marshall Plan: 1947
US government
Reconstruct post-war Europe, Establishment of ‘Bretton Woods’
Wanted to stimulate economies for US consumption and production
Political Institutions: United Nations, 1945; FAO
Economic Institutions
o International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(World Bank)
" Set up to fund reconstruction Europe by giving loans
o International Monitary Fund (IMF)
" Set up to provide loans to restore international
confidence in international currency
" Set up to help post war Europe
o General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), World Trade
Agreement (WTO)
The world was split into “developed” and “undeveloped” at this
Nation-States/Development States
Territorially defined political system based on government-citizen
Diving ethnic groups and societies
Adherence to and construction of national boundaries (based on colonialism)
Nation-state as locus of development.
Development as something that could be achieved through industrialization
within nation-state (USA model)
National division of labour (USA model)