INTD 200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Forced Pregnancy, United Nations Convention Against Torture

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Lecture 9: Expansion of Human Rights
12/16/12 9:22 AM
Recap: Human rights, contrary to legal right and civil rights, are rights with
are inherent to every human being. No matter where they are born, their
background, religion…etc… they have these rights as human beings. They
cannot be given or taken away by anyone. They can be recognized and
abused, but not given. The first universal recognition was in the Charter of
the UN in 1945. Stated that human rights were one of the purposes of the
UN. Set up the UN commission on Human Rights who then drafted the
UDHR.
Human Rights Instruments
International Bill of Rights: UDHR, ICCP, ICECS
This doesn’t cover everything
Some rights are still left out
Disagreements on the interpretation of some articles
o Everyone is equal. ! blacks and whites in the US; men and
women
Genocide Convention
Genocide: killing members of the group, causing serious body or
mental harm on a group, calculating to bring on physical
destruction within a group, force ably moving children from group
to group
Article 2
1948
Result of WW2
1993: Rwanda ! 800,000 killed
o made people want to do something about enforcing these
conventions
UN charter outlaws aggressive war
1951: Convention on Refugees
1971: Convention Against Apartheid
1981: Convention to Eliminate Discrimination Against Women
1984: Convention Against Torture
1989: Convention on The rights of the child
Treaty on the International Criminal Court
Provided a way of enforcing the CAA
Crimes against humanity
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Conventions on forced disappearances, disabilities, right to food, the right to
water
These came about as a way to define these things more precisely and in
detail. They try to deal with the interpretation and ambiguity problems. As
you expand these, enforcing them becomes more difficult.
Nuremburg Charter
Trials on the Nazis
Since these trials, there was a pressure to set up an international
criminal court to deal with crimes against humanity
Nothing was done about it during the cold war
International Criminal Court
Needed 60 ratifications
Genocide, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity
Geneva Conventions
Treatment of the Wounded and Sick on the Battlefield
Treatment of The Shipwrecked at Sea
Treatment of Prisoners of War
Treatment of Civilians in War
Declaration on Violence Against Women
Rape became recognized as a war crime with the Geneva
Convention
Rape and forced pregnancy and marriage are crimes against
humanity
Extreme forms of abuse
1987
Universal Jurisdiction: if you have committed torture, you can be arrested in
any country that has ratified the treaty and you can be charged by any
country that has ratified the treaty
Treaty on torture
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Proceeded by a declaration
1990, only took on year
most widely ratified human rights treaty in existence
192 states have ratified
someone under 18 years of age
Protocol: outlaws child soldiers
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