INTD 200 Lecture Notes - Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Brown Planthopper, Holism

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Lecture 24: Local Knowledge and Participatory
12/16/12 9:22 AM
Goddess and the Green Revolution
Bali rice cult, Temple and Subak system
Religious system important institution for natural resource
Pest management
Rice paddy ecology
Subak: association of farmers that share water from the same
water source, associated with a temple and the priest of that
temple with decided on how the water is shared
Knowledge system is part of their religious system
“holistic” living
Impact of Green Revolution on Bali Rice Cultivation System
Continuous Cropping of High Yielding Rice Varieties (IR8, IR36)
Water management and distribution system
Pest Management System
Mono-crop of new varieties vulnerable to pest (brown plant-hopper
and tungro virus)
In Bali, it was mandatory to switch from traditional rice crops to these new
rice crop strains.
Traditional Ecological Knowledge
Indigenous Knowledge, farmer knowledge, local knowledge
Experiential knowledge gained from observation, engagement and
interaction with natural and social environment in a place
Evolves over time
“cumulative body of knowledge, practice and belief, evolving by adaptive
processes and handed down through generations by cultural transmission.”
Different and sometimes conflicting knowledge for different people/interests
in community (women, men, wealth)
Reflects local cosmologies (world views)
Farmer Knowledge
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Adaptive in time and place
Embodies and experiential
Farming as “performance” vs. technical activity or planned sequence of
Farmer experimentation
Trends in Rural Development
Increased recognition of value of local knowledge
From “top-down” to “bottom-up”
Fram transfer of technology (like green revolution) to Participatory
More “holistic” approached (FSR, Livelihoods)
From peasants as backwards, to peasants as rational, to farmers as
experiments and as scientific collaborators
Participatory research and development
Interdisciplinary teams
“Quick and dirty” – fit with project timeframes
way of understanding what is happening in the village in a short
time frame
missing a lot
getting the main idea
optimal ignorance
Group activities
Focus on groups
Visualizing methods to encourage discussion
Semi-structured household interviews
Various levels of local participation
What Participation?
Requirement for social component
o Donor agencies
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