INTD 200 = Conference 1
TA office hours: Tuesday 11M-1AM. [email protected]
1) How do we measure development? What are the differences between GDP per capita and
HD? What are the strengths or weaknesses of both? How might the choice of a metric
-economic indicators: GDP
-inequality measures, gini coefficient
-human approach: HDI/HPI
Diff GDP/HPI: GDP purely income and economic. HPI evolution, social aspects. Both
average: no diff made between rural or urban areas, rich or poor.
GDP includes any eco activity e.g. oil spill. Any money spent fixing the problem and damage
will be added to GDP, they will increase the GDP: one of the problems
2) Discuss differences between different conceptions of poverty. The income/consumption
approach, capabilities approach, and social exclusion approach. How does the notion of
participatory assessment affect our conceptions of poverty?
-income consumption: meeting basic needs. What you make vs what you spend which makes
the poverty line. Could be regional differences. E.g. Canada : in the north cost of living is
much higher. This may affect poverty line, what they need to spend to make basic needs
-capabilities approach: Sears: development is a realization of the potential of human (6
3) What role did debt play in recent decades of the development project? How was it linked to
Structural Adjustment Programs? What is the concept of odious/illegitimate debt?
-role played: accumulated when Western countries invested and gave loans to developing
countries. E.g. US: then had a monetary crisis. Increased interest rates on developing
countries so Mexico, Brazil defaulted on their debt and could not repay. World bank punished
them for this, and created SAPs they would have to abide by to get the required funding
-SAPs: Programs allowing IMF to mandate changes in countries, to allow them to qualify for
loans. Public sector reduction side and macroeconomic policies part of those: forced to export
their commodities, devalue their currencies, reducing government role in the economy
-Poor for poorer and rich got richer. Urban poor were hit harder because part of SAP were
cutting civil service jobs and their wages. As industrialization occurs people lose jobs in
4) What were the primary components of Structural Adjustment Programs? What was the
primary driver for their creation, and what conceptual tradition did they come from? What
reasoning was used to justify them? What were their effects?
5) Contrast modernization theory and dependency theory. What are the basic tenets of each?
How do they differ in terms of the reasons they ascribe for underdevelopment, in their
projections for the future (for how countries are likely to develop), and in their prescriptions for
policy? • Dependency is more about social welfare, modernization is more about economic welfare
• Main point of modernization theory: increase percentage savings
• When we discussed the Modernization theory we discussed Rostow: 5 stages of growth
→ Stage 1: traditional society
→ Stage 2: prep conditions for take off: saw improvement of technology and transport,
increased trade and investment
→ Stage 3: Take off: things preventing or slowing economic growth are removed
→ Stage 4: Drive to maturity: self sustained growth, increase is seen in GDP (national
→ Stage 5: Age of High mass consumption: diversification, society becomes more sef
sufficient hence imports are reduced
• Dependency theorists promoting more self dependency
6) What does Escobar mean when he uses the term ‘discourse’? What does it mean that
development has become a discourse, and what are the implications? What are the
depoliticization and the professionalization of development?
- discourse is a space where only certain things can be said or thought about. How we think
about it or see it and how it affects other people
-focuses on subjective concepts we think about Friday, Sept 7:
100: Define GDP, and briefly comment on what it is used for (3)
→ Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a
country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living;
200: Define PPP, and briefly comment on what it is used for (3)
→ Purchasing power parity used to determine the relative value of currencies, estimating the amount of adjustment needed
on the exchange rate between countries → evaluates what can be bought in US$ in different countries)
400: Define HPI, explain what it looks at, and what it tells us (5)
→ The Human Poverty Index (HPI) is an indication of the standard of living in a country. It is considered to better reflect the
extent of deprivation in developed countries compared to the HDI. The HPI concentrates on the deprivation in the three
essential elements of human life : longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living.
500: How does Denis Goulet define development, explain each of the components (4)
→ 1971 : development should promote 3 core values : basic needs, self esteem, freedom
100: How are the articles (or rights) in the UDHR often classified?
→ It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights
instruments, national constitutions and laws.
200: What are the different components of the International Bill of Human Rights? (13)
→ The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
and its two Optional Protocols.
400: What does the term “Democratic Peace” mean? (17)
→ the theory that democracies do not go to war with each other. How well the theory matches reality depends a great deal
on one's definition of "democracy" and "war".
500: What is a key difference between the ICCPR and ICESCR in terms of enforcement obligations?
→ The main difference between the ICESCR and the ICCPR is the concept of progressive realization found in Article 2 of the
ICESCR. This concept acknowledges the difficulties countries may face in realizing these rights due to limited resources. The
concept also restricts actions by states that worsen the enjoyment of these rights. The ICESCR places an immediate
obligation on countries to take deliberate, concrete and targeted steps towards the full realization of rights set out in the
100: What does the “white man’s burden” mean? (26)
→ Racist ideas that people in these countries were backwards and trapped in traditional cultures. Colonialism as a positive
thing → white man's burden (responsibility of europeans to import their culture/religion/practices/health services/ social
organization to non-europeans).
200: What is a Nation-State (36)
→ Model of Europe territorially defined political system. Focus on management of people and resources → constructed