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Green Revolution Notes.docx

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

History:  Late 50’s, international agriculture research centers developed “modern varieties” for many crops.  Modernization of agriculture.  Concerns w growing population and food shortages  Goal of achieving sustainable food security  Population growth in developing countries Strengths:  Sizable increases in returns to land  raised farmer’s income (IFPRI]  Stimulated rural nonfarm economy  became a significant new income and employment  Huge declines in poverty in Asia, India  Lower food prices globally  Average caloric intake has risen as a result of lower food prices  Corresponding gains in health and life expectancy [Evenson]  Higher yields, less expansion, Saving huge areas of forest and other environmentally fragile lands that would have otherwise been needed for farming.  Indirect effects other than lower food prices o Increased migration opportunities o Greater employment in rural nonfarm economy Shortcomings:  Environmental damage o Loss of biodiversity [heavy dependence on few major cereal varieties]  Questionable sustainability of intensive cultivation o Soil degradation, chemical pollution, aquifer depletion, and soil salinity  Socio-economic impacts o Those who did not receive the productivity gains (largely because they were located in less favorable agro-ecological zones), but who nonetheless e
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