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Lecture 9

Lecture 9: Expansion of Human Rights

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McGill University
International Development
INTD 200
Warren Allmand

Lecture 9: Expansion of Human Rights 12/16/12 9:22 AM Recap: Human rights, contrary to legal right and civil rights, are rights with are inherent to every human being. No matter where they are born, their background, religion…etc… they have these rights as human beings. They cannot be given or taken away by anyone. They can be recognized and abused, but not given. The first universal recognition was in the Charter of the UN in 1945. Stated that human rights were one of the purposes of the UN. Set up the UN commission on Human Rights who then drafted the UDHR. Human Rights Instruments International Bill of Rights: UDHR, ICCP, ICECS • This doesn’t cover everything • Some rights are still left out • Disagreements on the interpretation of some articles o Everyone is equal. à blacks and whites in the US; men and women Genocide Convention • Genocide: killing members of the group, causing serious body or mental harm on a group, calculating to bring on physical destruction within a group, force ably moving children from group to group • Article 2 • 1948 • Result of WW2 • 1993: Rwanda à 800,000 killed o made people want to do something about enforcing these conventions UN charter outlaws aggressive war 1951: Convention on Refugees 1971: Convention Against Apartheid 1981: Convention to Eliminate Discrimination Against Women 1984: Convention Against Torture 1989: Convention on The rights of the child Treaty on the International Criminal Court • Provided a way of enforcing the CAA • Crimes against humanity Conventions on forced disappearances, disabilities, right to food, the right to water These came about as a way to define these things more precisely and in detail. They try to deal with the interpretation and ambiguity problems. As you expand these, enforcing them becomes more difficult. Nuremburg Charter • Trials on the Nazis • Since these trials, there was a pressure to set up an international criminal court to deal with crimes against humanity • Nothing was done about it during the cold war International Criminal Court • Needed 60 ratifications • Genocide, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity Geneva Conventions • Treatment of the Wounded and Sick on the Battlefield • Treatment of The Shipwrecked at Sea • Treatment of Prisoners of War • Treatment of Civilians in War Declaration on Violence Against Women • Rape became recognized as a war crime with the Geneva Convention • Rape and forced pregnancy and marriage are crimes against
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