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Lecture 12

Lecture 12: Environment and Development

8 Pages

International Development
Course Code
INTD 200
Warren Allmand

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Lecture 12: Environment and Development 12/16/12 9:22 AM Trade offs between environmental sustainability and development • Depletion of fisheries • Destructions of tropical coral reefs • Costal Forest destruction • Destroyed forests • Loss of global bio-diversity • Degradation of environmental lands • Bringing marginal lands under production • Irrigation and wells • Mining • Road Building Countries focusing on development want FDI. FDI wants to set up in their countries because there are weaker environmental laws. Environmental laws, even if they have them, are not well enforced. • Nigeria – Shell: oil extraction, joint venture projects, small amount of monitoring, pipe lines bursting, pollution of agricultural lands • Cambodia: local people being pushed away from their lands for rubber plantations • Canadian Mining Projects – Guatemala Hydro-Electric Dams National Development • Can provide water • Can provide electricity • World Bank promotes them Conservation • Flooding of biodiversity • Changes in the flows of rivers • Impact the movement of fish • Reservoirs can emit greenhouse gases • Roads • Pollution • Forestry industry Development Displacements • Displaces local and indigenous people • Lands and livelihoods • Health impact Not always a lot of local involvement. Social, environment and ethical problems with these dams. These usually cause a lot of opposition. There was such a back lash that the World Bank stopped doing this, until the Nam Theun 2 dam. Considered the one way to get money into Laos and give them economic benefits. They can sell the electricity and reinvest in the infrastructure, social and environmental part of Laos. Trying to make this an “ethical” and “sustainable” dam. Can use the money from the dam to conserve other parts of nature in Laos. Being seen as the main way to alleviate poverty in Laos. Trade-Offs • Large scale economic benefit Vs. People Vs. Environment Changing Perspectives on Environment and Development Limits to Growth (1972) – Club of Rome • “carrying capacity”: the idea that there are a limited amount of people that can be supported on a given amount of land and resources o ethical issues o social control and coercion o human rights • curtail population growth, production and consumption • Malthusian argument (influencer of Harden) Sustainable Development • 1983: World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) o international and interdisciplinary body • 1987: Brundtland Report “Our common future” o development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the lives of people in the future o not only development on the environment but also on poverty o Poverty can contribute to environmental degradation Poverty and the Environment • 1992: UN conference on Environment and Development (The “Earth Summit” o people being at the center of the problem o the worlds poor are dependent on natural resources for survival o conservation for poor people is not a priority à need to meet their livelihood needs o Marginal lands, sensitive to environmental destruction o Poverty and environment is a downward spiral • Rio Agenda 21 • Link between poverty and environmental degradation o Women problems: further for clean water, crops not growing as well, travel further for fire wood Property Rights: What is property? Social relationship, not “things” or owned resources • Must be recognized by others • Owning something means nothing if others do not respect this • Competing rights for property Social contract • Obligations • Rights Types of Property important for rural livelihoods: • Private Property: house, garden, farm owned by one family • State Property: national forests • Common Property: governed by social institutions o “Regularized patterns of behaviour between individuals and groups in society” that influence how people interact and make decisions about resource use. Constrain some activities and facilitate others. o Not static – subject to negotiation and change through everyday practice (structure vs. agency) o Bounded area/territory
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