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Lecture 24: Local Knowledge and Participatory Development

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International Development
INTD 200
Warren Allmand

Lecture 24: Local Knowledge and Participatory Development 12/16/12 9:22 AM Goddess and the Green Revolution Bali rice cult, Temple and Subak system • Religious system important institution for natural resource management • Hydrology • Irrigation • Pest management • Rice paddy ecology • Subak: association of farmers that share water from the same water source, associated with a temple and the priest of that temple with decided on how the water is shared • Knowledge system is part of their religious system • “holistic” living Impact of Green Revolution on Bali Rice Cultivation System Continuous Cropping of High Yielding Rice Varieties (IR8, IR36) • Water management and distribution system • Pest Management System • Mono-crop of new varieties vulnerable to pest (brown plant-hopper and tungro virus) In Bali, it was mandatory to switch from traditional rice crops to these new rice crop strains. Traditional Ecological Knowledge Indigenous Knowledge, farmer knowledge, local knowledge Experiential knowledge gained from observation, engagement and interaction with natural and social environment in a place • Evolves over time “cumulative body of knowledge, practice and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed down through generations by cultural transmission.” Different and sometimes conflicting knowledge for different people/interests in community (women, men, wealth) Reflects local cosmologies (world views) Farmer Knowledge Holistic • Social • Political • Ecological • Spiritual Adaptive in time and place Embodies and experiential Farming as “performance” vs. technical activity or planned sequence of events Farmer experimentation Trends in Rural Development Increased recognition of value of local knowledge From “top-down” to “bottom-up” Fram transfer of technology (like green revolution) to Participatory development More “holistic” approached (FSR, Livelihoods) From peasants as backwards, to peasants as rational, to farmers as experiments and as scientific collaborators Participatory research and development Interdisciplinary teams “Quick and dirty” – fit with project timeframes • way of understanding what is happening in the village in a short time frame • missing a lot • getting the main idea • optimal ignorance Group activities • Focus on groups • Visualizing methods to encourage discussion Semi-structured household interviews Various levels of local participation • Contractual • Consultative • Collaborative • Collegial What Participation? • Requirement for social component o Donor agencies • Improve project efficiency and effectiveness • Local empowerment Participatory Research and Development Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) • “quick and dir
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