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Human Rights

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International Development
INTD 200
Warren Allmand

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19, 2012: Human Rights  Charter has 3 purposes: the prevention of war and the maintenance of peace, the promotion and support of development, and the promotion and support of human rights. All are interdependent.  Article 55: deals with economic and social cooperation—“with a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote: a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development; b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.  Article 56: All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.  It is very clear in the charter that when you ratify the Charter, you are committing yourself to these three things.  Preamble of UDHR: every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.  For development to be successful, the world needs peace o What’s the point of building infrastructure/development, if someone blows it up the next day? When they realized this, the United Nations began sanctioning weapons, especially those which could be considered nuclear and mines, chemical weapons, biological weapons. o Human Rights are important too, because without the right to express their views and speak their minds, the people in the village you want to develop couldn’t be consulted on whether they need a well, a road or a school. o The UN began intervening when countries were attacking each other unprovoked, but they found it hard to define “aggression.” o The UN held world conferences to oversee what could be done to improve peaceful relations  Set up Office of High Commission of Human Rights—to achieve their human rights obligations outlined in the Charter.  Set up Economic and Social Council of the UN - dealt with economic, social and cultural issues  Part 10 of the UN Charter deals with ECOSOC, the main part of the UN dealing with economic, cultural and social rights.  Set up special funds to advance development goals  1970 : the General Assembly adopted a resolution that stated that the goal of all countries with respect to Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) was .07% of GNP. It was almost unanimously adopted, but very few countries have achieved this. Only 5 countries have achieved it (including Norway, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands).  For years in Canada, NGOs and Human Rights Organization kept lobbying the government to provide more in ODA (and between 1975- 1994 we almost did).  The ODA system was promoted by Lester B. Pearson at the UN.  In absolute dollars, the USA is giving the most in development assistance, but they don’t meet anywhere near the 0.07% of GNP.  1986: the UN adopted the Declaration on the Right to Development (by a large majority), which recognized that development was comprehensive (economic, social, cultural and political process). It also emphasized that peace and security are essential elements to the realization of development. It stated that the right to development was inalienable. It never became a convention or treaty so is not legally binding.  Preamble: “Recognizing that development is a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process, which aims at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of benefits resulting therefrom”  Article 1: “The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.”  Article 2: “The human right to development also implies the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources.”  Some of the Western countries did not vote for it (the USA, Canada and the UK were among these countries). They support
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