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Local Knowledge & Participatory Development

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Local Knowledge & Participatory Development Goddess and the Green Revolution - Bali rice cult, temple + subak system - Relig sys imp instit for natural resource management  Where temples, shrines placed + how priests involved in managing water + hydrology was extremely imp for productivity of entire sys  Temples based @top of water shed, further downstream, smaller temples  Ea/of these smaller temples had grp of farmers assoc w/them (subaks)  Subaks: association of farmers that share water fr/single source  Temple priest help manage how water is shared b/w diff rice fields  Water in rice fields imp b/c microbial diversity, getting rid of weeds, pests, keeping pH of soil, nutrients in soil, soil chemistry  Hydrology, irrigation, pest management, rice paddy ecology - Mgmt sys not separate fr/relig sys  part of holistic way of understanding, mnging environ  Can’t separate the two, s/times missing ppls understandings of how crops are produced, environ changing, how livelihoods are affected that incorp things beyond own worldview Impact of Green Revolution on Bali Rice Cultivation System - Indonesian gov heavily promoted new high yielding rice varieties - Concerned @time b/c net import of rice in nat, growing pops - Wanted to increase production of rice - Put in place a lot of policies to help/force farmers to switch fr/tradit varieties + systems of crop management to grow these high yielding varieties  Subsidized fertilizers + pesticides  Est special rural bank so farmers could get credit  Provided + organized extension services so that scientists could go into villages + explain to farmers how to use pesticides, fertilizers, what to do w/new rice varieties - Bali: made it mandatory for farmers to move fr/growing tradit varieties to higher yielding ones - IR8: susceptible to certain kind of pest  a lot of them died - IR36: shorter, took less time to mature, could grow 2 or 3 crops in 1 year  Changed irrigation sys b/c subak sys structured to have 1 or 2 rice crops per year  Brought in foreign consultants to intro new irrigation sys  IR36 susceptible to tungro virus  Change in irrigation sys meant that farms, village units loc downstream further fr/water source had probs in dry sys (whole water mgmnt + distrib sys shifted)  Pest management system  Land not flooded/burned same time  eruption of pests Traditional Ecological Knowledge/Indigenous Knowledge/Farmer Knowledge/Local Knowledge - “cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes and handed down through generations by cultural transmission” - Experiential knowl gained fr/observation, engagement + interaction w/natural + soc environ in a place - Diff + s/times conflicts knowl for diff ppl/interests in community (women, men, wealth, etc.) - Refl local cosmologies (world views – e.g. Bali temples), not just about production processes - Sense of reciprocity w/nature Farmer Knowledge - Holistic: inclu social, poli, ecological, spiritual - Adaptive in time + place - Embodied, experiential - Farming as ‘performance’ vs. technical activity/planned sequence of events - Farmer experimentation Trends in Rural Development - Increased recog of value of local knowl - Fr/‘top-down’ to ‘bottom-up’ - Fr/Transfer of Technology to participatory devel (local participation in devel, research) - More ‘holistic’ approaches (FSR, livelihoods) - Fr/peasants as backwards, to peasants as rational, to farmers a experimenters + as ‘sci ‘ collaborators Participatory Research and Development - Interdisciplinary teams (agronomists, anthropologist, soil scientists…) - ‘quick + dirty’ fit w/project timelines (optimize ignorance) - Way of understanding what’s happening in local area in very short time frame - Group activities (focus grps, visualising methods to encour discussion) - Semi-structured household interviews - Various levels of local participation (contractual, consultative, collaborati
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