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Regional Bodies

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McGill University
International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Regional Bodies - Is it possible to have regional organizations that go in a diff direction than UN? - Article 52: Nothing in present charter precludes existence of regional arrangements or regional agencies for dealing w/such matters relating to maintenance of peace + security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or agencies + their activities are consistent with the purposes + principles of UN - Article 103: in the event of conflict b/w obligations of members of UN under present charter + obligations under any other internat agreement, their obligations under present charter shall prevail (whatever comes in conflict = illegal) Council of Europe - Be careful not to confuse Council of Eur w/EU - Established in 1949 - After adoption of UDHR, UN not able to accomplish very much in area of HR b/c Cold War - Result: Council of Eur set up + adopted HR standards b/c they saw need for doing s/thing + couldn’t do anything @UN b/c Cold War conflict - 1950: 12 of Eur democracies set up Council of Europe - Principle Eur HR body + probably the best in the world (most effective) - Have been able to implement + enforce standards better than UN + other regional bodies - Adopted Eur Convention to HR + came into force 1953  Before ICCPR + ICESCR - 47 state parties/members in Council (nearly total continent) + have ratified Convention - Article 25 of Convention: allows for complaints to Eur Commission on HR fr/individs + NGOs - Very effective complaints mechanism if ppl feel rights are being violated - 1961: adopted Eur Social Charter, coming into force 1965, revised 1996 - Dealt w/economic/soc/cultural rights (before UN) - 47 states/parties have ratified - Also have Eur Committee on Social Rights, helps w/implementation + enforcement - Eur Commission on HR, receives complaints + lays cases before Eur Court on HR - Eur Court: decisions are binding - For a long time, most of binding judgements were against UK for abuses that were taking place w/respect to abuses HR Northern Ireland during period of conflict - Parliamentary Assembly (for the Council of Eur) - 5 major protocols on Eur Convention on HR - Protocol 6: abolition of capital punishment European Union - Est 1 as economic body, 1951 under Treaty of Paris (Coal + Steel Community) - Only 6 nats belonged to Treaty of Paris: France, Ger, Belg, Luxem, Italy, Eng - Purpose = economic + trade - 1957 changed name to European Community under Treaty of Rome - # nats belonging increased to 12 - 1992 changed name again to EU - Ea/time changed name, EU kept doing more + more things (well beyond pure econ matters) - Maastricht Treaty: size increased to 15 nats - 1997: Amsterdam Treaty, increased powers of EU further - 2010: 27 members of EU (are also members of Council of Eur) - 28 by July 2013 (Croatia) - EU have 23 official languages - Originally, EU had very few provisions w/respect to HR - HR already being taken care of by Council of Eur - Article 7: prohibited discrim in works that carries on in EU - Then added Article 48: deals w/freedom of movement for workers in EU - Critical to purposes of EU: if in France + can’t get a job, can go to Ger to get job - Article 199: deals w/equal pay for equal work w/respect to women - Didn’t have very much in EU instruments/treaties w/respect to HR - 1987: Eur Parliament - Ppl elected directly fr/nats in EU - Set up sub-committee on HR, received petitions fr/citizens in EU nats - Petitions could be on any matter, 1/3 happened to be on fundamental HR issues - 1989: decided to adopt Charter of Fundamental Social Rights for Workers - Finally came in force in 2009 - 2009: European Charter of Fundamental Rights - Equivalent, but not as complete as Eur Convention on HR under Council of Eur - All of these things provide more supp for HR + enforcement of HR - 1992 under Maastricht Treaty, EU set up embossment to look into rights of workers (discrim in workplace, child workers, HR of workers being violated) - 1999: Eurozone (nats that use Euro), 17 members by 2002 - Leading cause of concern today (probs in Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, Italy) + whether or not Euro sys will survive - Not all members of EU signed in on Euro - Conditions for admission to EU (1993), - 1) Stable democratic instits - 2) Respect for minorities in nat - 3) Working market economy  If still had totally controlled econ (soviet/communist nats), not eligible  Can be mixed econ, but must market econ - 4) Capacity to cope w/competition in EU  If nat applied for membership + didn’t have level of edu, manufacturing capacity + couldn’t compete w/other nats, not eligible - 5) Ability to adhere to econ/poli/monetary standards of EU - 6) Abolish death penalty - HQ: Brussels, Eur Parli meets Strasburg - Eur Council: Council for EU, basic body that makes most basic decis for EU - Eur Commission: executive branch + have 27 commissioners (1 fr/ea/nat), are like cabinet ministers (assigned posits, 1 in charge fisheries, agricul, immig) - Body in EU that carries out + implements day to day work of EU w/big civil service underneath - Eur Parliament: approx 600 members of Parli - Smallest representation 6 members fr/Malta, 96 rep fr/big nats like Germany - Elections e/5 years - Eur Court of Justice (diff fr/Eur Court under Council of Eur) - Deals w/treaty, statute that would be implemented/adopted by EU - Eur Central Bank (Frankfurt) - Eur Monetary Institute, Eur Investment Bank (similar to IMF, WB) - EU plays major role in internat devel - 1975: adopted Lomé Convention, EU + 69 nats in Afr, Carrib, Pacific  Set up arrangements to provide internat devel grants, loans, subsidies to nats that had signed on, part of major devel program put on by EU  ECHO (Eur Commission for Humanitarian Aid Office), in charge of devel program  2007: ODA = $671M euros/yr  Most of devel assistance goes to Afr, Carrib, Pacific H: have also done s/devel work in W Eur, former Soviet Union, s/Asia + Lat Am, also do s/when disaster/other maj problem  Fund admin by ECHO = European Development Fund  Haven’t reached 0.7 target of aid, but approaching it Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) - Came out of Helsi
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