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INTD 200 (186)

Expansion of Human Rights

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Expansion of Human Rights - Following adoption Uni Decl (1948), started to be great expansion of more specific HR instruments - Great success at UN in devel HR treaties + having them accepted - H: another thing on how they are implemented/adhered to - Why was this done? Did Internat Bill of Rights not cover everything? - No, there were gaps, things forgotten/left out - Disagreement on interpretation of s/articles  Equality = race, gender  When start to apply principles in Bill of Rights, disagreement in applications  Led to discussion + need for devel of individ, specific conventions on certain subjects - Convention on Genocide (1948) - Pressure came fr/looking @Holocaust of WWII - Genocide def: not just massive killing of grp ppl that belong same race/relig/culture  Killing / causing serious bodily/mental harm / delib inflicting condits of life calc to bring phys destruc in whole/part / imposing measures to prevent births / forcibly transferring children to another grp - Despite fact that ppl said genocide will happen again,  1993: Genocide in Rwanda (800 000 dead) - Triggered impetus on enforcing these conventions  Bringing to trial ppl who responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes - @end WWII: Nuremburg Trials  Tried Nazis who had committed war crimes  Devel Nuremburg Charter that laid out diff crimes they believed crimes under internat law  S/Nazis found guilty, put in prison for life/executed  Did the same w/Tokyo Trials  H: crit b/c in this case, victors were setting up rules to try those who were defeated  No trials for the victors, perception = things other side did much worse - Since Nuremburg Trials, attempt to set up Internat Criminal Crt deal w/issues of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity  Draft put on table H: when Cold War devel, got nowhere until fall of Soviet Union - 4 Geneva Conventions on War (1949) - 1) Treatment of wounded + sick on battlefield - 2) Treatment of personnel shipwrecked @sea - 3) Treatment of prisoners of war - 4) Treatment of civilians in war - Implementation of 4 Geneva Conventions carried out under Internat Red Cross - Convention on Refugees (1951) - Refugee def: s/1 being persecuted b/c of their relig, poli ideals etc.  If life/life of fam threatened + flee nat, other nats that have ratified the convention have an obligation to take you in - Convention to Eliminate Racial Discrimination (1969) - Racial discrim def: any distinc, exclusion, restric, preference based on race, color, descent, national/ethnic origin which has purpose/effect of nullifying/impairing recog/enjoyment/ exercisestn an equal footing of HR/fundamen freedoms poli/soc/cul/any other field public light - 1965: 1 expression of affirmative action  Can discrim in certain cases to help grps very far behind to catch up w/mainstream - Convention Against Apartheid (1971) - Convention to Eliminate Discrimination Against Women (1981) - Preceded by Decl to Elim Discrim Against Women - Deals w/issues of discrim + also decl regarding violence against women, not yet convention  Rape @Nuremburg trials, not consth war crime  Rape recog as war crime w/4 Geneva convention - Convention Against Torture + Other Forms of Cruel + Unusual Punishment (1984) - Protocol that deals w/death penalty - Under this treaty: universal jurisdiction, can be arrested/charged any nat ratif this treaty - Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) -
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