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Role of UN in Development of Human Rights

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International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

Role of UN in Development of Human Rights - Interrelationship b/w devel + HR & peace/war + devel + HR how brought out by UN - UN Charter: drafted during WWII, came into being immediately after war - 3 great purposes, all interdependent:  1) prevention of war + maintenance of peace  2) promo + supp of devel  3) promo + supp of HR - UDHR preamble: e/individ + organ of soc keeping this decl constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching + edu to promo respect for these rights + freedoms & by progressive measures, nat/internat, to secure their universal + effective recog + observance - Means that for devel to be successful, need peace - HR imp as well b/c if don’t have right to organise, peaceful assembly, freely express views to attain their devel  need access poli/civil + econ/soc/cul rights - Amartya Sen: devel for whole person, includes human devel - What has UN done to go about achieving goals? - Peace + prevention of war: peacekeeping ops, peacemaking ops, control of weapons, devel of treaties w/respect to nuclear weapons, nuclear-free zones, landmines treaties, convention against chem weapons/biological weapons/cluster munitions weapons  UN has used force in certain instances when e/thing else fails + conflict about to take place - HR: set up UN Commission on HR  UN HR Council, world conferences to oversee what was done, what might be further done (1993 Vienna, Conference on HR)  Set up Office(r) for High Commissioner of HR - Development  UN part 10 = ECOSOC (Economic + Social Council)  Main part of UN dealing w/econ + soc issues  Set up special funds + agencies  advance econ + soc devel goals  UNDP, FAO, WHO, UNESCO, UNICEF  1970: UN GA adopted resolution, goal of all nats w/respect to Overseas Development Assistance should be 0.07% of GDP (used as measure of whether giving fair share)  Almost unanimously adopted by GA H: very few nats ever achieved this (only 5)  0.07% result of proposals made @UN by Lester Pearson  1986: adopt Declaration on the Right to Development (never become treaty/convention)  Of the interest of UN in devel, need to push ahead goals of UN in respect to devel + how they are interrelated to peace + security + Internat Bill of Rights  S/Western nats didn’t vote for it, still don’t (supp devel but not HR)  2000: Millennium Development Goals  Major initiative of UN, outstanding ex of UN of pursuing goals in its charter to do s/thing about devel + HR (need reach goals by 2015)  1) eradicate extreme poverty + hunger  2) achieve universal primary edu  3) promo gender equality + empower women  4) reduce child mortality  5) improve middle health  6) combat HIV/AIDs, malaria + other diseases  7) ensure environ sustainability  8) devel gl/partnership for devel  Crit: MDG too narrow, focused too few things, forgot s/imp things  Q: doesn’t all stop in 2015, what to do in future  Results: few cases where targets have been reached/will be reached by 2015  Most cases  progress insuffic to reach target if prevailing trends persist  Most ppl in devel/HR believe that adoption of MDG = good thing  Focused certain imp issues + effort was made even though goals not fully attained - Vienna Declaration + Program of Action(1993) - Controversy developed w/respect to HR + devel + interrelationship - Turned back a lot of attacks + 170 nats voted for Decl  Universal nature of these rights beyond Q  HR + fundamental freedoms stbirthright of all human beings  Protection + promo = 1 responsibility of govs  All HR = universal, interdependent, indivisible, interrelated  Internat community must treat HR gl/in fair+equal manner in same footing + emphasis  Democracy + devel + respect for HR = interrelated + mutually reinforcing  Supps Right to Devel = universal + inalienable right, HR - 1993: Rwanda  over 800 000 ppl
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