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What is Development?

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McGill University
International Development
INTD 200
Karen Mc Allister

What is Development? Developing vs. developed? - Devel = improvement living standards, econ prosperity, glz, sustainability, - S/times conflicts in how devel pursued - Many ppl think devel = technological progress + linear change  Influ Darwin ideas  devel = process organisms reach evolutionary peak - Others: devel = planned change, change towards goals - Probs: idea of devel as evolution = has idea that there is s/thing not actually evolved  Ethical issues in how think about development - Labelling = important b/c labels used about diff parts worlds/ppls influ by how understand processes of change + shapes how think about how soc change over time - Development/underdevelopment - Coined after WWII by Harry Truman  Prior: more derogatory view: s/nats econ/soc/culturally backwards - Truman speech ideas:  Ethical responsibility to help develop through tech progress  Have means to plan devel in certain way  Criteria for comparison of what is devel, scale fr/under towards devel, universal measure  Underdevel areas = threat to developed (time: beg’g of Cold War) - 1 /2 /3 /4 world (political ideologies) - 1950s, Alfred Sauvy - 1: Western world, NAFTA - 2: Soviet Bloc - 3: Everyone not in groups 1 or 2  Problems: unclear category  Negative connotations, pejorative, frames world in hierarchy  What does it mean when nat is econ devel?  S/times have nats classif 3 world, better off social wellbeing than s/1 world  Implies hierarchy of path towards certain kind devel - Another grouping = NAM: Non-Aligned Movement (1955)  Attempting to bring poli unity b/w diff nats didn’t belong 1 /2 world  Fluid mobile membership, no clear def - 4: Poorest of poor (ex: Somalia, Afghanistan)  Failed states/areas of partic poverty w/in countries  Ex: indigenous ppls, socially marginalized grps - Newly Industrialized Countries (NCIs) - Certain nats econ devel quickly H: no longer part of devel’g world  Singapore, SK, Taiwan, China, Thailand, India, Malaysia … - Emerging markets: become markets of goods produced through gl/capital - Categorization based on % of pop involved in non-agricul sectors  % GDP based on manufac goods, per capita income higher certain level - Developed economies/developing economies - Certain nats in process of change - Alternatives: South, Global South - To try get out of situations of hierarchy/idea uni-linear devel use this label - Prob: Australia in S, but not considered S, considered to be neutral H: not really based on loc Defining and measuring development: development as economic growth - Gross Domestic Product: money produced w/in econ of nat - Gross National Product: also includes money coming fr/outside nat (entire wealth of nat) - GDP/Capita: amount of income per person in nat  average - Prob: wealth disparity - Gross National Income per capita: term used by WB (essentially GDP) - WB compares standard of living in diff nats by adjusting GDP per capita w/PPP - Purchasing Power Parity: evaluates what can be bought w/1USD in diff nats (measure cost of living) - Economic growth not necessarily economic development - Doesn’t account for increase of living standards - GDP measures average income of nat not distrib in nat - Doesn’t give indication of soc/physical/econ environment  Ex: human rights abuses, ppl working in sweatshops - Doesn’t look at value of non-market sustenance goods - Based on stats, dubious in s/places H: relatively easy to measure + convenient indicator Development and social welfare: Inequality - Kuznet’s curve - W/devel (which he equated w/indusz) as ppl moved out of agricul + increase indusz  Initially, increase in inequality, over time decrease inequality  Reverse U-shaped curve as econ + indus devel increases - Measuring inequality - Dividing pop into econ strata (quintiles, deciles)  Compare how income is divided in these pop grps - Gini coefficient  Number between (0 – 1)  Lower number, lower amount of income disparity - Social capital and inequality - Extent to which diff ppl in society trust ea/other - Pp
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