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INTD 200 (186)
Lecture

Theories of Development I Modernisation, Dependency, World Systems Theory

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Department
International Development
Course
INTD 200
Professor
Karen Mc Allister
Semester
Fall

Description
Theories of Development I Modernisation, Dependency, World Systems Theory Industrial Capitalism - Model of devel: progress along model of Eur induz + capitalism - Assumption that all independent nats could progress along same lines as IndusRev in Eur - Shift fr/agricul based soc to more indus soc (necess to generate econ growth)  Econ growth then necess to generate wellbeing of population  @time: assumed wealth would trickle down - Capitalism reorganised soc + produc so that social relations were increasingly structured by market - Restructuring social relations in Eur: less personal, based on soc bonds b/w ppl - Private owners of capitalism investing in means + materials of produc (land, tech, capital inputs) - Inequities of capitalism w/out any state invention  capitalists have interest in paying workers only fraction of value of their product - End up w/increase in class inequity  increase class division b/w owners of capital + labourers - Uneven capitalist devel happened w/in nats + b/w nations (indus vs devel’g) - Classical economic paradigm - Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (1776)  Laissez-faire capitalism, invisible hand  Looked at imp of free market + individ liberty in creating econ prosperity + success  Individs who were not overly controlled by state would use ingenuity to best extent  If all ppl pursue own self-interests, all of soc would benefit  Public itself would control market production + employment  Also recog that soc couldn’t be ruled by markets alone b/c don’t have moral sentiments  State still has role to protect nat sovereignty, citizen’s rights, provide public goods - Alfred Marshall: Principles of Economics (1890) - Karl Polanyi: The Great Transformation (1944)  Critique of laissez-faire capitalism  Capitalism creates fictitious commodities  Treats land/ /labour/money as commodities (s/thing only produced for market)  H: these items have other purposes  Markets themselves cannot regulate economy  Econ = social relations b/w ppl as well  If market regulation allowed to run freely, end up w/exploitation of ppl b/c they will be a push to increase surplus by lowering wages + of nature (no value)  Any sort of capitalist soc  state will end up intervening (double movement)  Have a counter movement that will be resistant to market control  State + ppl put in policies + instits to control market impact on labour  Ex: enforcement of min wages, safety regulations, environ regulations  Soc protects itself fr/self-regulating market sys - Failure of capitalism recog b/c depression in 1930s - Ppl abandoned concept of laissez-faire + unrestric markets - Post-WWII called for greater nation-state involvement Development Economics/Neo-Classical Paradigm (Early 1950s) - John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946): General theory of employment, interest, and money (1939) - Promo idea mixed econ  increased role of state in regulating markets  Disagreed w/idea that laissez-faire capitalism would act for benefit of e/1 in soc  Advocated for increased state spending + expansion of credit to deal w/recession  Advocated policies for gov to invest in state infrastruc  Create jobs + demand for g/s  upward spiral  Govs should spend in bad times + save in good times to regulate econ up/down - Called on govs to borrow $, take debt to pump $ into econ when things were bad  Pay back debt when things were good  This kind of thinking influ Bretton Woods Instits (WB, IMF)  Invest in reconstruct Eur, then later devel’g nats by injecting capital, tech - W. Arthur Lewis: Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour (1954) - Dual economy: in underdevel nats, have capitalist/modern + subsistence/traditional sectors - Needed growth of capitalist sector @expense of subsistence sector for devel  Ult goal: subsistent sector would be absorbed by capitalist sector  Subsis sector: had a lot of labour but not as productive  As capitalist sector expanded, more jobs, place for ppl in subsistence sector to move - Crit: didn’t really recog of small scale agricul in devel (ex: Green Revolution) Modernisation Theory (Late 1950s) - Emerged in response to failure of devel’g nats achieve sustained indusz growth - Econ ideas were supplemented w/theories fr/sociology + polisci - Focus on diffusion of modern values + instits - Walter Rostow (1960): The Stages of Economic Growth: A non-communist manifesto - Ideas coming out @time of Cold War  Combined ideas of devel econ w/ideas sociology + modernisation  Idea of supporting US role in development internationally - 5 stages through which all nats pass in process of econ growth (towards capitalism) - 1: Traditional soc  Primitive techs, hierarchical soc structures, produc based on custom + barter - 2: Pre-condits for take-off  Improvement of tech + transport, increase in trade + investment, emergence of econ elites, more centralised nat-states  Assisted w/edu, instits for mobilising capital (banks)  Tradit soc exist alongside mod econ activities - 3: Take-off  Obstacles to econ growth = removed  Indus more devel, agricul more commercializ + productive to meet demands urban centre - 4: Drive to maturity  Self-sustained growth  Increase in national income, improved tech, more diversification, decreased imports - 5: Age of high mass consumption (modeled off US at the time)  Increased imp of consumer g/s  Rise of welfare state  reinvest growth + surplus back into soc + mili - Crit: unilinear, Eurocentric, doesn’t recog role of colonialism - Sequential: implies things get better over time, improvement is obvious, natural - Model econ growth + indus investment, not focused human welfare/wellbeing as goal of devel Talcot Parsons (1937): The structure of social action - Not trying to devel prescriptive policy on how to devel places -
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