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Lecture Notes April 2.docx

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Islamic Studies
ISLA 210
Laila Parsons

APRIL 2, 2012: The Iranian Revolution  Shah’s white revolution: growth and promotion of the secular educational system  Page 28 of Persepolis  The Shah’s two pillars of control were the army and SAVAK  Vilayat-i taqlid is the deputyship of the jurist: means that the jurists can rule on th behalf of the 12 Imam while waiting for him to return. This allows Khomeini to seize power because he develops the idea in a really comprehensive way  Ulama are the religious scholars  **The fact that the clerics in Qom during the period of the Shah were given money by the Shah to build modern schools  The economy: an explanation for the Iranian Revolution. The Shah spent huge amounts of money on the military, and the annual budget went from 60 million in 1954 to 5.5 billion in 1975. By 1975, Iran had the largest navy in the Persian Gulf, th the 5 largest army in the word, and the biggest air force in Western Asia. Most of these state resources going into the military and SAVAK came from oil.  Under the Shah, state bureaucracy grew, and there were over 300,000 bureaucrats by ______. It was a very inefficient bureaucracy.  There was a lot of money in the shah’s court- he had a large family and many family and friends involved in the court. The court ran the Pahlavi foundation, which his wife, Empress Farah, had a lot to do with. She became hugely unpopular figure during the revolution. His top officials were paid extremely well.  There was huge industrialization, which created a new salaried middle class. Civil servants, teachers, lawyers, engineers, etc. was a new class. Simultaneously, a huge urban working class was developing in Iran’s largest cities and there were mass migration into the big cities.  There is a very wealthy upper middle class including court connected entrepreneurs, the Pahlavi family, and the bureaucrats, the new middle class, and the urban working class.  Land reforms: in the countryside the land reforms robbed the traditional land owning class of their source of income, which brought a lot of people into the cities to find work.  The bazaar was a key tipping point in the revolution. They were the social fabric of Iran’s traditional economy, and the Shah went after these guilds and merchants into his new party so they were answerable directly to him. This alienated them, and some say it was this more than anything (the support of the bazaar) that was a key cause for the revolution.  The shah put out slogans like “Islam belongs to the oppressed, not the opressors” “Islam represents the slum dwellers, not the palace dwellers,” the poor die for the revolution, the rich plot against it” “we are for Islam, not for capitalism or feudalism” “In Islam there will be no landless peasants,” “Islam originates from the masses not the rich”  His only real support came from the oligarchy surrounding him, from SAVAK, and from the Army  The new middle class did not come out in defense of the Shah  The left was the other key cause of the revolution- particularly on university campuses. The left grew enormously under the Shah. The Tudeh Party and the Peoples Muhajeden emerg
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