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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 (revised).docx

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McGill University
Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 330
David J Pearsall

9/26/2012 3:58:00 PM 2008 guide lines say  Participating in 7hrs/week of PA can have a 30-40% lower risk of dying early vs those who exercise 30min/week  Not necessary to do high amounts of activity or vigorous activity to see lower risks o Substantially lower risk of mortality when people do at least 150min/week of moderate intensity aerobic PA  Benefits apply equally to men and women, regardless of age, body weight, race Physical activity can;  ^ cardiorespiratory endurance  dec/control BP  reduce body fat  lower lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides)  improve HDL  control diabetes  dec. low grade inflammation  ^/maintain heart function  smoking cessation  alleviate tension/stress  counteract history of diseases Cardiovascular disease (CVD)  Leading cause of death in Canada ~37% of all deaths  Ex. peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, hypertension  Risks decrease w/ regular PA, healthy diet, no smoking  PA can help improve cardiorespiratory fitness which in turn can reduce CVD o Does so by dec. resting heart rate/increasing stroke volume during submaximal exercises  Types of diseases o Heart attack o Atherosclerosis o Congenital heart disease o Bacterial endocarditis o Aneurysms o Hypertension o Stroke o Rheumatic heart disease Metabolic effects  cluster of clinical characteristics: o elevated glucose/insulin levels o hypertension o abnormal lipid/lipoproteins  HDL  LDL  Trigylcerides  Cholesterol o Obesity  Diabetes o Type 1- insulin dependant  Auto-immune disfunciton where immune system attacks insulin producing beta cells  Treatable w/ insulin o Type 2- insulin independent  Obsess people  Pancrease cannot secrete enough insulin to compensate for the IR  HIGH RISK FOR DEVLEOPING CVD o Those with diabetes are at higher risk for developing heart disease and stroke o Disease is more prevalent in blacks, histpanics, and natives than Caucasians o Glucose levels >200mg/dl = diabetes Types 9/26/2012 3:58:00 PM Heart attack  Coronary thrombosis (blocking of blood vessels) o Lack of blood flow to areas of the heart  Coronary heart disease o Narrowing of vessels that carry blood to/from heart MALES MORE LIKELY TO DEVELOP CVD  Myocardial infarction o Risk factors  Cholesterol is the GREATEST RISK FACTOR FOR HEART ATTACK (HA)  Low HDL  High LDL  Physical inactivity  Inflammation  Smoking  High BP o Warning signs  Uncomfortable pressure in center of chest for >2min  Pain speading to shoulders, neck, arms  Dizziness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath  Atheresclerosis o Bloackage in vessels o Promoted by high LDL  HDL can reverse this  Angina pectoris o Chest pain= angina o Lack of O2 to heart, and no waste removal o ^ risk for HA  Congenital heart defects o Abnormal heart structures/vessels/valves AT BIRTH  Rheumatic heart disease o Bacterial infection that damages heart valves (common in children)  Congestive heart failure o Occurs when other disease have damaged the heart and limited its function  Bacterial endocarditis o Infection of lining of valves of heart inflammation  Aneurysms o Weakness of bulge in artery that can burst and lead to internal bleeding Risk factors 9/26/2012 3:58:00 PM Alterable (via PA or medical treatments)  Hypertension o MAJOR RISK FACTOR FOR STROKE  Different then myocardial infarction which is CHOLESTEROL] o Few symptoms  Tobacco smoking o Incr. risk by 2-3x  Cholesterol- Antherogenic dyslipidemia o High levels of cholesterol o An “improved” antherogenic dyslipidemia profile  Lower total cholesterol, increased HDL and lower triglyceride levels  Physical inactivity/low cardiorespiratory fitness o 2x as likely to die from CVD  Obesity  Metabolic syndrome o Cluster of abnormal characteristics o Associated with prolonged sitting, poor diet, sedentary behaviors  Diabetes o In ability to control blood levels leads to clotting o DOUBLES RISK o Metabolic syndrome Unalterable  Age o In
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