OBESITY 2.docx

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Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 330
David J Pearsall

Energy balance 10/16/2012 4:37:00 AM 1016 EDKP330 Myplate assignment  Men consume on average 2800kcal, women 1600kcal o Men have greater metabolic rate o Women tend to underreport amount of food Increase prevalence of obesity?  Fast food chain  Technology work tends to be sedentary jobs  Work time increase, not enough time to exercise  Leisure time spent on computer  Increased amount of processed food Energy balances  Positive energy balance: consumption> expenditure= weight gain o The nation tends to be in positive energy balance overall  Negative energy balance: consumption < expenditure= weight loss o Clinically sufficient weight loss: 5% of body weight o Weight maintenance: weight change < 3% o Prevention of weight regain: change in weight 3%-5%  Neutral energy balance: no weight change  *run 30 miles a week and you don’t have to worry about what you eat  Influences on caloric balance o Concept for total energy intake  Overconsumption = increased prevalence of obesity/overweight  Diet is very important to weight loss/maintenance o Intervening w/ PA and exercise alone, diet only, or combination  PA/exercise used alone are not as effective as when they are combined w/ diet  Dose-response relationship b/w PA and exercise and BMI o Non-active leisure time activities compete with active pursuits o Benefits of engaging in regular PA Types of diets  Scarsdale diet o High protein, low carbs, low sugar  Pritikin diet o Lots of fruits and vegi, very little fat  Atkins diet  Higher fat diet, low calorie Be wary of products including:  Weight loss skin patches/shoe inserts  Anything containing: o Ephedra o Ephedrine o MA Huang o HCA  Fat blockers/shrinkers o Interfere w/ fat metabolism  Diet teas o Loss of bodily fluids  Fiber tablets/laxatives  Electrical stimulators for weight loss/toning 10/16/2012 4:37:00 AM Risk factors Modifiable  Physical inactivity o Help achieve caloric balance o Increased PA = improved long-term weight maintenance/enhance weight loss = improved functional health  Esp. reduction in abdominal fat  Most dangerous fat in high quantities o Increased quality/duration of sleep o Improved economy of movement  Perform motor skills more efficiently which is limited by carryin excess weight/body fat  Excess caloric intake o Energy consumption >> energy expenditure  Low socioeconomic status (SES) Nonmodifiable risk factors  Age o Increase with age  Difficulty to perform PA  Heredity o Likely a cluster of genes o Twin study: twins that parted since birth have relatively similar weight gain o Can reverse this by adjusting life style/ achieving caloric balance  Ethnicity or race o Diabetes is extremely common in aboriginal people (Pima Indians) in the States o Pima Indians have genetic disadvantage and when placed in environment which allows weight gain, obesity trend increases  Culture o Pima Indians in Mexico are overweight but not obese  Grow their own food  Metabolism (caloric expenditure at rest) o variability in response to over feeding  Twin study 2: twins were overfed 1000kcal each day  All gained weight,
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